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College of Liberal Arts 











from f?e Congo to t^e ?atn6e6t 

IN THE YEARS 1886 AND 1887 





IT n b ir 



(r <S p- cL-' J 

3 SI 


In accordance with my habit since the year 1880, I am 
now visiting Germany onl}^ that I may recover from 
the fatigues of my work in Africa, and in order to 
gather new strength for further exploration of the Dark 

In spite of my having on account of ilhiess as well 
as of business very little spare time during my four 
months' stay at home, I resolved to write down as a 
simple reproduction of m}'' diaries the most noteworthy 
facts of my second journey through Africa. We can 
never know whether we may return from those un- 
civilised regions ; and for this Reason, and since my last 
work — the suppression of the East African rebellion — 
suggests my publishing further accounts at a later 
period, I have written the following pages, which I 
beg the reader to accept as a simple narrative of my 
experiences and observations. 


The present publication of my diaries is partly owing 
to the fact that the terrors incidental to the slave-hunt 
and to the transport of the unfortunate human chattels 
are illustrated in the following pages, and I can only 
hope that I may be enabled to excite the reader's 
interest in, and sympathy for, those nations which still 
groan under the yoke of barbarism, and which certainly 
have a right to our help and protection. 


Latjterberg : October 30, 1800. 




Eeturn to Afiica — My task there — My encountering Kund and 
Tappenbeck — Why I chose the name of ' Cassai ' — Unfavourable 
beginnmg — Buffalo hunt — A snake-bite — To the mouth of the 
Cassai — Elephants — Up the Cassai — Waste of waters — Venerable 
tombs — Abundance of game — Effect of a whistle — Tropical luxu- 
riancy — ^ Mount Pogge — Kund's crossing the Cassai — Nine 
affluents — Tipsy natives — Picturesque canoe expedition — The 
natives' way of life — On the Sankurru — A landslip — Still life of 
the desert — How I met Dr. Wolf ..... 



Foinidation of Luebo station — Luluaburg — Exploration of the 
Sankurru — The condition of the ' En Avant ' — Savage steersmen 
— Effect of a glaring coloiu' — Brass and copper, African gold — In- 
timidation of some Bassange for their impudence — ' The Sankurru 
is good, the Lubilash wicked ' — Zappu Zapp — Caution ! On the 
Lubi — The ' En Avant ' in danger — A new river — Lomami ? — 
Average — Ethnography — At the station . . . .37 





Progress of Liiebo station — Patrol on the Muieau — Encountering 
faithful Bugslag — Luluaburg, a centre of civilisation — Plantations 
— The breeding of cattle — Meteorological observations — With 
Kalamba — Saturnino de jMachado — Hostile Chipulumba — Punish- 
ment of some of our soldiers — Up the Cassai with "Wolf — An un- 
inhabited wilderness — Tormenting bees — Bars in the river — 
Wissmann Fall — Wild boars — Falling trees — Missed the ' Stanley ' 
— At the station — Separation from Wolf — Punishment of a chief 
— Balundu — Ambassadors — Settling political difficulties at Lu- 
buku — Distribution of the Star-Flag — My influence over the 
Bashilange — Kalamba's visit — Spectacle snake . . .58 



Collecting the escort for the journey — A good shot — A terrier trying 
to attack a hippopotamus — Plundering by my men — ^Eolian bells 
— The savage Balungu — Put on the wrong track — The Kanjoka — 
Dancing women — Boundary of the pure Baluba — Threats — Dense 
population — On the Bushi Maji — Insolence of the natives — -W^ar 
— Effect of the report of a gun — Treacherous Baluba — Falsehoods 
of the Balungu — Fruitless negotiations — W^arlike expedition to 
punish our insolent enemies — A hundred prisoners and a large 
booty — Want of ammunition — My resolve to return — The inhospi- 
table Baluba country — A dangerous retreat — Fair — Bad state of 
health — At Luluaburg — Conflagration — Le Marinel's dangerous 
illness . . . . . . . .94 




Meeting of the chiefs of Lubuku — Heavy hail-storm — My fruitless 
search for Germano — Dr. Sommers — Germane at last — Depar- 
ture for our long journey to the North-East — Camp building — 
Robberies and skirmish — Prairies — Villages set on fire — Pacidc 



welcome — Slave trade of the Bihe people — Primaeval forests — 
Inhospitable savages — On the Lnbi— Simao's gallant swimming 
expedition — Punishment of the rapacious Ngongo — A thief 
punished by an arrow-shot — On the Sankurrii . . . 131 



The Lussambo — Cheating— Beautiful river scenery — First news of 
the Arabs — Primseval forest — Batetela — Batua, the so-called 
Dwarfs — Negotiations with the Batua — Nothing but primaeval 
forest — Christmas in the dark — With the Bena Mona — Murder 
with poisoned arrows — Critical moment — War— Building of a 
bridge — Lukalla — Hunger — Missed an anaconda — Bad reports 
about the countries before us — The ravaging slave-hunters — The 
exterminating Arab — Duties of the civilised world in protection 
of the defenceless Africans — Extermination of a great nation — 
With Lupungu and Mona Kakesa — Sale of amnnuiition — The 
large town of the Peshi desolated ..... 156 



Camp of a troop of Tibbu Tibb's Zanzibaris — Said, the leader of 
the warlike expedition — Said aiming at prisoners in his pistol 
practice — Cannibalism in the camp of the Arabs— Sad condition of 
my caravan— A man rising from the dead — Many sick people — 
On the Lomami — The caravan well-nigh exhausted — The Arabs' 
form of government — Hungry people eating poisonous fruits — 
Inundations — Everything gloomy — Amputations — Some people 
missing— Bridge formed of brushwood — Small-i)0x — The weakest 
part of the army left behind — Losses — Eeports about hostilities 
between the Arabs and the Congo State — Bad prospects — At 
Nyangwe — Hidden threats — Tibbu Tibb's son subjecting me to 
an examination — Suspicion against me — Famba's aid — Mj' 
Bashilange sent home uninjured — I remain in the Arabs' power 
— Separation from Le Marinel and my caravan . . . 19G 





Famba's disclosures — Stores of ivory — In the lion's den — ' White 
men are cowards ' — Thwarting of my plans — The murderer of a 
German — The past and present recollections of an old chief — I 
feel very weak — The places of encampment poisoned by the 
corpses of slaves — Sad reflections — Apathy of my people — Horrors 
of the traffic in slaves^On the Tanganyika . . . 230 



Warning against going to the coast — At Ujiji — My going to the south 
- — My exhausted Baluba left with the missionaries — The lake 
and its discharge — Night journeys — Storm — Mpala — Correct pro- 
ceeding of the missions— Galula's death — Leopards — Baboons — 
Progress by land — Water banks — Flight of some carriers — Super- 
stition — Extortions — Wawemba murderers — Scotch mission — Mr. 
Bain on Ethnology — On the Nyassa — Clouds of insects . . 249 



The Nyassa — The banks abound in game — The Ai-abs on the lake 
— Livingstonia — Shire — Mandala and Blantyre — I am ill — The 
negroes' deficiency in skill — The journey on the Shire resumed 
— Crocodiles and hippopotami — Struggle with a huge heron — 
Bugslag's true companionship — Portuguese outpost — The Zambesi 
— Mrs. Livingstone's grave — On the Quaqiia — Quilimane — Con- 
clusion ........ 282 


Letter of Le Marinel on the Return of the Bashilange to 

THEIR Country ....... 301 

Thk Bashilange Country ...... 306 

INDEX . . . . . . . . .319 









wolf's meeting WITH ZAPPU ZAPP 











To face ^j. 14 



















To face p. 188 



A BUFFALO HUNT . . • . . . . . 9 




MOUNT POGGE . . . • . • . . 28 


MY MEETING WITH DR. "WOLF . . . . . . 35 

LUBBO STATION . . . . . . . .37 

ON THE LUBI . . . . . . . . 48 

THE LUKENJA-LOMAMI . . . . . . .50 

HUTS OF THE BENA-YEHKA . . . . . . . 53 



LULUABURG . . . . . . . . . 63 

CHIRILU FALL . . . . . . . * 72 

THE CROSS IN THE CASSAI . • . . . . . 76 

A WELCOME MEAL . . . . . . .81 


CAPTAIN DE MACAR . . . . . . ,95 

LULUMBA FALL . . . . . . . , 96 

A HEROIC TERRIER . . • . . . .98 


.EOLIAN HARPS ........ 102 

FARMS OF THE KALOSH . . . . . . . 108 

A KALOSH ........ 110 

RETURN FROM THE FIGHT . . . . . . . 118 




GRASS SAVANNAH . . . . . . . . 141 




VALLEY OF THE SANKUKRU . , . . . , . 100 




IN THE VALLEY OF THE LUKASbl . . . . . . 194 


INTERIOR OF SAID'S CAMP . . . . . . . 199 

PALMS ON THE LOMAMI ....... 200 

ELEPHANT ON THE KALUI . . . . . . . 211 

BUILDING A BRIDGE ....... 215 

LIEUTENANT LE MARINEL . . . • . . . 228 


JUMA BIN SALIM'S IVORY . . . . . . . 231 


PASSING THE ILINDI . . . . . . . 237 

ON THE TANGANYIKA ....... 249 

CAMP ON THE LUKUGA . . . . . . . 257 




OUR PARTY ......... 282 









1880-1887 ...... To face p. 1 


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Keturn to Africa — My task there — My eneoimtering Kiind and Tappen- 
beck — ^^^.ly I chose the name of ' Cassai ' — Unfavourable beginning — 
Buffalo hunt — A snake-bite — To the mouth of the Cassai — Elephants 
— Up the Cassai — Waste of waters— Venerable tombs — Abmidance of 
game — Effect of a whistle — Tropical luxuriancy — Mount Pogge — 
Kund's crossing the Cassai — Nine affluents — Tipsy natives — Pictu- 
resque canoe expedition — The natives' way of life — On the Sankm'ru— 
A landslip — Still life of the desert — How I met Dr. Wolf. 

The fatigues I had undergone during the time of the 
travels described in my work ' Im Innern. Afrikas ' had 
wasted my energy to such an extent that I was 
obhged, in September 1885, to leave Africa in order 
to gain new strength in a more congenial climate. 



After a nine weeks' sojourn in Madeira, perhaps chiefly 
owing to my being dosed with arsenic, I feh- so much 
better that I began to think of resuming my work. 
Through the medium of H.E.H. the Crown Prince of 
Germany, I had two years previously received a com- 
mission from the King of the Belgians, to whom I was 
under an obligation of another year's service. But, as 
I was desirous of turning to account my experiences 
in the newly established German colonies, I applied to 
his Eoyal Highness, inquiring whether in any of the 
German possessions my services might be of value ; in 
which case I begged his Eoyal Highness, by his gracious 
intercession, to get me released from further obligations. 
I was told in reply that, for the present, there would be 
no work for me in our possessions, and that the King of 
the Belgians had expressed a special desire that I should 
return to Africa once more, which desire his Majesty 
then communicated to me himself. I was given my 
choice, either to undertake the entire administration 
of the Inner Congo State, from Stanley Pool upward, 
or to carry on my work as before, in which latter case 
I received the following directions. 

In taking advantage of the favourable state of 
political affairs, I was to open the Baluba country to 
any further undertakings south of the Congo State, 
and to make the native tribes to the south, the north- 
east, and eventually to the eastern boundary of the 
Congo State, acquainted and satisfied with their new 
political situation. 

I was to investigate and, if possible, to counteract 
the proceedings of the slave-hunters, and report about 


what I tliougiit of the countries south-east of the Congo 
State with respect to their cuUivation. This was all 
the more important as I was the only European who 
had traversed the Congo State by land. It is evident 
that on such journeys it is far easier to form an estimate 
■of a country than in travelling by water, as one is then 
able only to judge of the fertile districts on the river- 
side, besides having naturally much less intercourse 
with the natives than when one travels in the interior. 

In undertaking the administration of the Inner 
Congo State, I should have been compelled to sub- 
ordinate myself to the Governor-General of the State. 
For these reasons I decided upon further investigations 
•of the Inner Congo State, as this would leave me entirely 
independent and solely responsible. 

As mentioned at the end of my work ' Im Innern 
Afrikas,' I had, when on account of illness obliged to 
quit the Congo, resigned the command of my expedition 
to Staff Physician Dr. Ludwig Wolf. Of my former at- 
tendants, he was joined only by the shipwright Bugslag 
and the gunsmith Schneider ; Lieutenant von Francois 
had left the expedition before, and the ' Forstreferendar ' 
MliUer had returned to Europe on sick leave. 

I left Madeira on January 8, 1886, and towards the 
end of the month reached Banana, at the mouth of the 
Congo, just at the time when the former Administrator- 
General, Sir Francis de Winton, resigned the govern- 
ment of the Congo State to his successor, Mr. Jansen, a 
Belgian. From the latter — who had taken the Baluba 
who had conducted me down to the Congo, while ex- 
ploring the Cassai, back to their country — I learned that 

B 2 


the transport on the river steamer had been accom- 
pUshed without mishap, and that Wolf had begun to 
carry out my instructions, to which I shall refer later on. 

After a short delay at Banana, Boma, and Yivy, I 
started for Stanley Pool. The beginning of the journey 
was by no means promising. The march over rugged 
mountains between Matadi and Pallaballa during the 
hottest season brought on a rather serious cough, that 
obliged me to continue my journey in a hammock. On 
the first or second day's march I met my German friends, 
Kund and Tappenbeck, homeward bound. The former 
was still suffering from the wound he had received 
on the Cassai, not far from the place where a year ago 
I had to encounter a severe struggle with the treache- 
rous Bassongo-Mino when investigating the said river. 

The report of both these gentlemen, especially with 
regard to their observations of the southern affluents of 
the Cassai, and the place where they had crossed the 
river, hardly agreed with my recollections, which may 
partly be ascribed to the circumstance that the different 
tribes know the watercourses by different names, partly 
to the fact that Lieutenant Kund's instruments of obser- 
vation had suffered so much during the transport as to 
disable him from ascertaining astronomically where he 
crossed the Cassai. 

Kund called the Cassai ' Sankurru,' as the natives 
frive it this name at the place where he crossed it. I 
take this opportunity to mention that I consider it 
both unjustifiable and unreasonable that several carto- 
graphers, from the evidence of these officers, though 
they had crossed the river only in one place, have given 


this river tlie name of ' Sankurru,' wliilst I, who have 
explored it in its full length, have called it ' Cassai.' 
Nor have I chosen this name without reason. This 
largest tributary of the Congo, a river to whose volume 
of water not one European river can possibly be com- 
pared, has, in its whole course, a succession of different 
names. Livingstone, in its upper course, calls it ' Cas- 
sabi ' and ' Loka ; ' farther on, in its middle course, it 
is called ' Cassai,' which name it retains through its 
longest stretch. After this the names vary continually : 
first it is called ' Nsaire,' 'Nsadi,' ' Nshale,' 'Loko,' 
' Nsali-Monene ; ' then, after receiving the Sankurru, its 
largest tributary — which, however, has not half the 
volume of water the Cassai has — it is called ' Sankurru,' 
' ShankoUe,' afterwards ' Shari,' ' Nsari,' ' Nshale-Mele,' 
and ' Qua.' 

Later measuring proved that I had always kept in 
sight that part of the river system that had the greatest 
mass of water, which in sailing down a river is quite a 
chance. As for the name of this immense water-artery, 
it could only either be ' Cassai ' or ' Nsaire ; ' but, the 
Congo itself being repeatedly called ' Nsaire ' by the 
tribes living near its lower course, and this name also 
being adopted by the Portuguese, I decided upon that 
■of ' Cassai,' and must, therefore, request the carto- 
graphers to put it in their maps. 

My two brother-officers, after having given me all 
those articles they could possibly do without, since 
they would soon reach civilised parts, left us with their 
best wishes. And now, while the incidents of this leave- 
iaking are still vividly present to my mind, one of them 


is no longer among the living. Tappenbeck, after inde- 
fatigable toil, at last succumbed to the tropical climate ; 
whilst the other is only now recovering from a tedious 
illness, the consequence of his fatiguing African work. 

My constitution, usually proof against any tropical 
changes, seemed to disappoint me this time. My cough 
continued, and the heat, intense even for those parts,, 
and combined with heavy rains, brought on a good 
deal of fever. 

On February 231 arrived at Leopoldville, on Stanley 
Pool. I had ordered the ' Peace,' belonging to the 
English mission, and the only steamer then at liberty, 
to be detained for a few days, and then made the 
following arrangement with Mr. Grenfell, who was- 
most obliging in meeting my wishes. 

The ' Peace ' immediately started for the Equator 
Station, and thence returned to Quamouth, at the mouth 
of the Cassai, where I was eventually to go in a rowing 
barge. Then she was to pick me up and take me up 
the rivers Cassai and Lulua, into the Baluba country. 
As I wanted the Germans of my expedition who were 
staying there to go with me, I requested the Adminis- 
tration of the Congo State to send me some of their 


officers to take charge of the stations of Luluaburg and 
Luebo ; at the same time they were to bring such pro- 
visions as the ' Peace ' was not large enough to take in. 
Besides Lieutenant Bateman, who was in attendance 
on Dr. Wolf, Captain de Macar and Lieutenant Le 
Marinel were placed at my disposal. 

From my substitute in the Baluba country we 
learned, meanwhile, that he had formed a station below 


the rapids of the Luhia, on the mouth of the Luebo, 
which he had given into the charge of Lieutenant 
Bateman, an Enghshman of the Congo State, while my 
faithful Bugslag was head of Luluaburg. Wolf him- 
self decided upon taking the steamer ' En Avant,' which 
had been assigned to him for the investigation of the 

At Leopoldville we passed the time in preparations 
for the journey and in hunting expeditions, with the 
product of which — a few hippopotami — I j)repared 
several days of feasting for the black garrison. 

This reminds me of a bufllilo hunt, which I take the 
opportunity of mentioning as an obvious proof that 
rules for hunting African game should be given only 
with caution. 

Towards evening I posted myself on the largest 
island in the middle of Stanley Pool, a spot that, on 
account of its many puddles, is favourable for, and 
often frequented by, the buffalo. Shortly before sun- 
set a clumsy old buffalo bull {Bos euryceros) came tramp- 
ing out of the thicket into the clearing where I had 
posted myself behind an ant-hill. This buffalo was 
remarkable for its colour. It was of a brownish black, 
whilst the back and hind legs were speckled white. On 
inquiring I was told by a native that bulls were often 
speckled like that, while the females were invariably 
ruddy-coloured and considerably smaller. The bull was 
enormously fat and short-legged, and had evidently 
strayed from his herd. He seemed to be following the 
scent of a herd, and approached me to within about 
sixty metres, when, apparently scenting me, he stopped 


short. Being still very weak, I put my heavy rifle on 
the shoulder of one of my negroes and aimed at the 
low-bent brow of the animal. In consequence of an 
involuntary movement of my attendant I missed my aim, 
and the buffalo galloped past me towards the right, I 
had meanwhile seized my small double-barrelled gun 
(calibre 500) and aimed at the animal's shoulder-blade. 
He jumped up high, but kept running in the same direc- 
tion, wdien my second barrel laid him low. When my 
attendants noticed that the buffalo tried in vain to get 
up, they rushed upon him with knives to stab him, 
notwithstanding my shouts of warning, ^o sooner 
were they within a short distance of the bull than he 
managed to get up again, and instead of rushing upon 
his assailants he disappeared in the thicket. 

I now stopped my attendants and encamped for the 
night, in order to hit off the scent again next morning, 
it having already grown quite dark. At daybreak we 
traced the wounded animal, who had evidently lain 
down at intervals of about 100 metres. He seemed to 
have reached the island and tried to swim to the oppo- 
site bank. As we could not find any further trace of 
him, we conjectured that his strength had given way 
while swimming, and that he had floated down the 
river. I had certainly very rarely found that a wounded 
buffalo-bull, and especially a single one, abstained from 
attacking his assailant when face to face with him. 

Before leaving Leopoldville for Madeira I met with 
a strange accident, which I must not neglect to men- 
tion. One evening I had fallen asleep in a travelling 
chair with a blanket across my knees ; I must have 


stirred in ray sleep, as 1 was 
awakened by a painful sting 
in my hand, just in time to see 
a snake, that had likewise taken 
up its night-quarters in my 
blanket, glide from my knee 


to the ground and disappear in a hole. My hand began 
to bleed in the two places where the snake had inserted 
its fangs, and, as I knew this species to be venomous, 


I bound the joints of my fingers, my hand, and elbow 
with a handkerchief before I sent for the doctor, who 
cut out the bite and cauterised the wound with hyper- 
manganesiate of potassa. Chiefly owing to my having 
bound the joints at once, I did not notice any bad 
effects from the venom. This case is especially worthy 
of notice because of the singular boldness of the snake, 
for it is a fact that, as a rule, a venomous snake avoids 
going near human beings, and only bites when touched, 
especially while it is asleep and when it feels obliged 
to defend itself. I have cured a number of snake-bites 
myself, and know of only one case that ended fatally 
— one in ^^'hich the wound was not bound, and where 
half an hour ela]3sed before help could be procured. 
For snake districts I greatly recommend little glass tubes 
filled with sal-ammoniac, hermetically sealed at either 
end. One end of the tube has to l)e broken and pushed 
into the wound, and after doing this the patient should 
also be dosed with from eight to ten drops of the same 
liquid in a glass of water. Strong doses of alcohol, 
even to intoxication, are also an excellent remedy 
against the effects of a snake-bite. 

On March 9 I left Leopoldville in a small boat that 
had arrived meanwhile to take me to the mouth of the 
Cassai, where I was to await the ' Peace.' I was joined 
by a Mr. Greshoff, of a Dutch firm that was about to 
establish a factor}^ on the Luebo, and by the then head 
of Leopoldville station, Herr von Nimptsch, a former 
Prussian officer. The journey was a miserable one, the 
boat being no match for the current of the Congo. It 
was small and bare of everv comfort ; and we suffered 



much from the weather, the rainy season having set in 
with full force, and the boat affording no shelter from 
rain or sun. 

The only pleasant break was the appearance of a 
herd of elephants on the northern bank, that abounds 
in game. The attempt to bag one or two was, as usual, 
thwarted by the negroes, who, being much more liglit- 


footed than the Europeans, approach the game more 
quickly and less cautiously. 

Arrived at Quamouth, at the mouth of the Cassai, 
we learned that the ' Peace ' was not due for a week,, 
and we therefore decided to go upon a hunting ex- 
pedition to a district on the Upper Congo, near the 
mouth of the Lefini, where game is plentiful. The first 


moonliglit niglit a herd of elephants was seen wading 
through the stream above the camp. The huge beasts 
felt so secure that they had given themselves up to the 
•enjoyment of bathing to their hearts' content. They 
were pla3'fully racing through the shallow water, 
chasing each other in their delight, uttering shrieks 
such as I had never heard before. I crept to the edge 
of the wood near the bank, but was stopped by a lagoon 
which emptied itself there. I then rowed up the river 
in a canoe, making a large curve round the animals ; 
and afterwards drifting up to them, I kept my gun 
ready to fire. The elephants marked their sense of 
my nearness by a suspicious snorting, whilst one of 
them cautiously drove the whole herd out of the water 
into a thicket. Now the gigantic beasts broke away 
towards the primseval forest close up to the camp-fires, 
when, frightened by the glare of the latter, they dis- 
appeared into the impenetrable thicket, whither to 
follow them would have been useless. 

In spite of the numbers of elephants, buffaloes, and 
wild boars, I did not once get the chance of a shot, as it 
was impossible to creep along either in the primaeval 
forest or in the long grass of the savannahs. I there- 
fore returned without prey to Quamouth, where the 
* Peace ' arrived on March 20 to take me up the Cassai. 

The Cassai, called, as before stated, Nsairi-Qua, both 
l3y the people living to the north, the Wayanzi, and 
the mixed tribes of the Wanfumu and the Bateke, 
narrowed itself to scarcely 200 metres. We hove the 
lead, and with a line of thirty-three metres found we 
were out of soundings. The brown waters were rapidly 


rolling into Father Congo. For more than a German 
mile down the river the brown colour of the water was. 
for about a third of the breadth distinctly separated 
from the yellow. Besides large numbers of crocodiles, 
the soft-scaled tortoises are frequently met with and 
seen sailing in straight lines across the stream. At the 
narrow mouth of the Cassai the gentlemen at Quamouth 
station had a short time ago noticed traces of a disease 
among the hippopotami. For about a week large- 
numbers of dead animals had daily been seen floating 
down the river. 

On March 22, the birthday of our late Emperor 
William I., we started on our journey up the river. 
Besides the commander of the boat, the missionary 
Mr. Grenfell, we were accompanied by the above-named 
Herren Greshofi" and von Mmptsch. 

We next passed several spots where the water had,, 
in going down, struck me from its frequent and sudden 
changes of colour. The light brown colour repeatedly 
alternated with one dark and ruddy, probably caused 
by strong currents below. 

Being amply provided with fuel, we steamed on till 
dusk, and soon dropped anchor off an island covered with 
high grass. After dark the island, a pasture ground 
for hippopotami, was soon alive with them. I took a 
short moonlight walk with Herr von Nimptsch, and, dis- 
turbing them at their supper, we made these pachyder- 
mata scamper heavily away to their place of refuge. 
Only one of them seemed unwilling to be disturbed ; 
he was standing in the deep grass, and warned us off 
by snorting rapidly. We tried to make him go on by 


throwing hard clods of earth at him, but as we did not 
succeed in moving him we decided upon retreating and 
leavinsf the irritated animal undisturbed. 

Next day we passed into an almost inextricable net 
of channels separated by long-stretching grass-grown 
islands and banks. We had to keep carefully in the deep 
channels towards the right bank, as I remembered to 
have noticed in those on the left bank large stones that 
might have damaged the boat. The right bank, as we 
were told, is inhabited by the Wabuma, the left by the 
Wanfumu, although the existence of homo sapiens could 
scarcely be credited in the midst of this vast waste of 
water ; nor have I anywhere else got the impression of 
so undisturbed a desert as in these parts. In this place 
it was that I with my attendants shot seven elephants 
and several hippopotami, so that our canoes could 
scarcely carry the meat which our men were supplied 
with for several months. 

We could almost fancy we were transplanted into 
an antediluvian period. Fearless, as if man, the most 
dangerous beast of prey, were unknown in these regions, 
the huge pachydermata were moving about, while as a 
rule they only leave their protecting waters and the 
shadow of the primaeval forest at night. Hippopotami 
were lying basking in the hot sun; elephants were 
marching along the river-side singly and in herds, oc- 
casionally bathing in the shallow places of the river ; 
with buffaloes calmly walking among them. We also 
noticed an abundance of all sorts of birds—pelicans 
quietly waiting for their prey, flocks of different kinds 
^of wild ducks which the lagoons were stocked with. 


beautiful black geese almost resembling swans, and the 
so-called spur-goose. On some dry brandies on tlie 
bank were perched lurking cormorants and splendidly 
dyed kingfisliers ; the river eagle was seen proudly 
soaring along the bank ; while white-headed vultures 
were perching on naked branches, and thousands of 
lesser birds, such as strand-runners, rails, and fish-hawks, 
were haunting the place. Different kinds of storks were 
gravely and solemnly stalking across the flooded islands, 
and on the bank the large heron was visible in the shade 
of some overhanging branches. 

Apparently undisturbed peace is reigning ever^^where 
among those thousands of different creatures, all enticed 
by the mighty stream, with its cooling floods and its 
abundance of animal life. Now and again the deep- 
toned voice of the behemoth makes the peaceful stillness 
resound, involuntarily causing one to start. Here one 
has to get accustomed to sounds that try one's nerves 
most painfully by their loudness and strangeness. That 
reminds me of the above-named elephant hunt in the same 
neighbourhood. We had killed only female animals 
and young ones, and were surprised not to liave found 
one male among the lot, when in the dead of night the 
huge creatures came in search of their families. They 
stopped close to the camp, where the flesh of their mates 
was being dried by the bright fires. The scent of the 
blood must have convinced them of the loss they had 
sustained, for they raised a wailing sound so deep, so 
strange and mournful, that I was startled from my sleep 
and deeply touched with the singularly impressive tones. 

At my request we landed in the evening at an island 



noted for the interesting tombs of several chiefs of the 
Wabuma tribe. I conducted the gentlemen who were 
with me across a small farm, where an old negro who 
had charge of the tombs lived by himself. Then we 
passed into the dome-like forest, where the underwood, 

I the ferns and amo- 

mum, a kind of jun- 
gle, had been cleared, 
and only the gigantic 
stems held the beauti- 
fully arched leafy roof 
that cast a deep shadow 
over the place. It 
felt almost cold here^ 
and one of our com- 
panions most appro- 
priately quoted, ' Und 
in Poseidons Fichten- 
liain tritt er mit from- 
mem Schauder ein.' 
Thirty to forty large 
elephant-tusks marked 
the tombs ; but the 
former had suffered 
much from the atmo- 
sphere and were de- 
cayed and damaged; 
nor was it possible to 
recognise the original shapes of the knives, spears, 
and arrows, once perhaps the weapons of those buried. 
The old sexton was evidentlv reheved when we left this 





interesting place without having desecrated the tombs 
by touching its rehcs. Next morning early we caught 
sight of a block of houses at Mushie, where we took in 
provisions. There was a large supply of manioc flour, 
maize, dried fish, fowls, and eggs. Close to the village 
our men found some gigantic trees with low hanging 
branches, and creeping up their stems some wild vines 
with immense grapes that were full of small blue berries. 
Although rather sour, the grapes were not bad ; but 
after eating a good many of them they left a tickling 
sensation in the throat, so that, not having a botanist 
amongst us to tell us its proper name, we called them 
' Kriitzer.' 

Just above the villages the Mfini empties its black 
waters into the brown Cassai. This river, because of 
the quantity of water near its mouth, may be compared 
to our river Saale. It shows this black colour after the 
discharge into it of Leopold Lake — which lake Stanley 
had discovered two years before my sailing down the 
Cassai. The Mfini, as stated by Kund and Tappenbeck, 
is in its upper course called Lukenja. A good distance 
upward the river is navigable, and if the natives' report 
may be relied on, it flows farther up through a still un- 
known lake. Its upper course is supposed to be only a 
few days' journey north-east from where the Lomami 
falls into the Sankurru. 

We now turned to the left side of the Cassai, alongf 
which we intended to keep, and, if possible, to find the 
mouths of the southern tributaries, whose upper courses 
1 crossed in 1881 and its middle courses in 1884. The 
best guide for finding the mouths of tributaries in such 




wild districts is the colour of the water, as it \^ very 
rarely the case that tributaries have the same colour as 
the main stream, which is dyed by waters coming from 
many different directions. 

Scarcely had we passed through the labyrinth of 
banks and islands, and across the river, at least seven 
kilometres broad, and reached the left bank, when, fol- 
lowing the sudden darkening of the water upwards, 


we entered a meandering watercourse of sixty metres 
breadth, that was flowing from east-south-east. We could 
only go up this rivulet for about two hours' journey, 
because we noticed some stones that would have en- 
dangered the comparatively large vessel. The small river 
Lua, three-and-a-half metres deejD, was winding through 
an endless grass-plain towards its mouth in 3° 10' south 

Game was very plentiful on the plain. Some ele- 
phants were frightened four times at short intervals by 
the noise of our engine, and on turning I noticed a great 


number of these animals close to an ant-liill. A leopard 
was crossing the river immediately before us, but escaped 
our shots, as we could not get our guns ready before the 
beautiful beast had disappeared among the high reeds. 
Most comical it was to watch a hippopotamus that 
■dared not venture to pass in the narrow river : now 
he kept rushing wildly on in the water, then galloped 
-along the riverside in the hope of getting away from the 
•ever-snorting steam monster that was incessantly pur- 
suincf him. I hit the animal at last, for later on, when 
we were sailing towards the Cassai, it was seen floating 
on the surface. Herr Greshoff shot a crocodile that 
was being carried down the river on the dead hippopo- 
tamus, and then we encamped to prepare the game for 
our negroes, who are very fond of the flesh of these 

Next day we proceeded along the left bank, and in 
the course of the forenoon we came upon some light 
brown water greatly difiering from that of the Cassai. 
Ofi" a large place named Jukissi we dropped anchor on 
the Quango, near the mouth of the Sali Mbi, which we 
had discovered when going down. The inhabitants of 
the village and surrounding farms assembled, and sold 
us large quantities of fuel and provisions. 

Most of our negroes were at the village, when, all 
of a sudden, a commotion arose among the crowd of 
natives, and from their shouting and loud quarrelling 
tones we conjectured that our men were engaged in a 

Mr. Grenfell, who had once seen the effect of the 
powerful voice of his ' Peace ' when investigating the 

c 2 


Mubangi, now sounded the steam- whistle. The im- 
pression was again so overpowering that all the natives 
took to their heels in wild fear, disappearing in the 
thickets and rushing towards the village. Only one 
old white-haired Herculean chief, who was standing 
close to the river, felt ashamed to run, but was terrified 
to such a degree that he staggered backward, and only- 
kept his footing by catching hold of a tree. 

As soon as our crew had got on board we weighed 
anchor, and steamed up the Quango to find a place that 
would enable us to take a drawing of the river. About 
800 metres above the village, the banks of the river, 
that on its mouth form a delta, began to rise to such 
a height that we supposed its waters were all concen- 
trated in this part. We found the breadth to be 650 
metres by an average depth of five-and-a-half metres^ 
and a speed of seventy-five metres a minute. The 
ground was soft and sandy, and the temperature of the 
water was 81° (Fahrenheit) — scarcely one degree colder 
than that of the Cassai. 

Several miles above the mouth of the Quango we 
once more passed into that wide lake-like opening to 
which, in going down, we had given the name of 
' Wissmann Pool.' 

It is remarkable how continually the scenery near a 
river changes. On entering Wissmann Pool, the grass 
islands and the endless prairie-like banks come to an end. 
Parts of a primeval forest of rattan and palm-trees come 
in sight, and in straight lines, like the veins in marble, 
islands lie intersected by deep branches of the river. 
These islands are covered with palms, of which the oil 


species thrives particularly well, and covers the ground 
throughout, so as to make one suppose the islands to 
have formerly been palm plantations. In order to get a 
regular plantation of luxuriantly developed oil-palms, 
all that would be necessary would be to' cut down the 
underwood and ferns, and somewhat clear the thickly- 
grown palms. Supposing the palm-oil, the product of 
such a plantation, to be put up in casks and floated 
straight down to Stanley Pool — where the Congo Eail- 
way, shortly to be completed, would undertake the 
further comparatively short transport — both islands 
and banks, closely grown with palms as they are, might 
yield, some day, great profit. 

The terrain must be magnificent, the colours being 
so luxuriant, so deep and soft, as to give one an im- 
pression of very rich soil. At present the huge grapes 
fall off and rot away, unless some native happens to cut 
the tree to obtain the much-valued palm-wine and take 
possession of the grapes. 

In the mornings and evenings, innumerable grey 
parrots make an almost deafening noise, and are silent 
only in the hot sun at noon. Even in moonlight nights 
this strange bird undertakes long excursions in large 
flocks, which noisily interrupt the stillness of night. 

When next day, the 28th, we proceeded up the 
river, it struck us how differently the natives were dis- 
posed towards us. In some parts they pursued us 
down the bank with loud invectives and threats, and 
with bows bent ; in others they beckoned to us, eagerly 
desiring to sell provisions, and altogether showing 
themselves most friendly. This was very likely owing 


to the passing of my expedition on its up journey. 
Wolf and a great number of Europeans who were with 
me had won over the natives by presents and pur- 

I am not entering into any details about the different 
tribes, which, though ascertained only by such super- 
ficial observation as we could make, have been given in 
the work ' Im Innern Afrikas,' which enlarges upon our 
sailing down and exploring the Cassai. 

On the 29 th we found the Cassai for a long way 
bare of islands, and took a drawing of the river thir- 
teen knots above Wissmann Pool.^ With 1,200 metres 
breadth and nine metres depth, we ascertained a speed 
of eighty metres a minute. After jjassing Wissmann 
Pool, the banks and islands showed thick forests, and 
with them the hippopotami grew more and more scarce 
from their now being in want of j)asture. The last of 
them, being startled by our approach, was on the point 
of plunging into the water, when I fired and hit it when 
it was within a distance of a hundred metres, so that 
it fell in quite shallow water. This shot gained me the 
praise of the Europeans, and above all that of the 
negroes, who are always greedy for flesh. To produce 
such an effect is possible only when the shot penetrates, 
the brain, which is of about the size of one's hand. 

Henceforward we repeatedly met native islanders 
on the Cassai, but learned that their sojourn here was. 
only transitory, during the time of the sugar harvest. 
From the sugar-cane they fabricate a highly intoxicating 
drink of a very pleasant acid taste. A number of such 

^ For the complete collection of sections vide Appendix II. 



manufacturers called out to us one day, and, probably 
in the blissful mood caused by the consumjjtion of 
their liquor, saluted us with dancing and singing, and 
on parting even presented us with a small pig that, 
having been cooked like a sucking-pig, we greatly en- 
joyed next day. Once, in order to vary the daily round 
of dinner, which generally consisted of either fish or fowl, 
we tried a fricassee of a young crocodile that I had shot, 
and we could not l^ut own that the tender meat, in 



flavour something between fish and fowl, is by no means 
to be despised. 

As Mr. Grenfell was particularly desirous of termi- 
nating the journey as quickly as possible, we generally 
steamed until evening, and then set to work until it was 
dark in getting wood ready for next day's fuel. This 
time-absorbing business will not be necessary much 
longer, as the natives have taken the measure of the wood 
required, so as to have it always ready for sale at a 
cheap price to any passing steamer. 


The only elevation amidst tlie uniform level of the 
banks of the Cassai — which in our descent we named 
Mount Pogge — is less conspicuous to those coming up 
than to those going down the river. It is probable 
that near this elevation a river from the north empties 
itself, but the number of channels prevented our making 
sure of it. One may, however, pretty certainly depend 
upon its being a branch of the Cassai, and not a 
separate river, whenever the water does not change 

We were now approaching the Bassongo-Mino tribe, 
whose treacherous attack and hostile fury we had 
severely punished on going down. Wherever we 
stopped to collect or purchase wood, the natives fled 
from their cottaoes, even if but one of us on some short 
excursion lighted upon a village. On one of these ex- 
peditions I could not resist the temptation of taking 
some new and interesting weapons and tools from such 
a deserted village. In place of them I put some bright- 
coloured handkerchiefs and beads, which amply made 
up for the value of the things annexed. 

On April 2, after passing a bend of the river, we 
called out simultaneously, ' There is Kund and Tappen- 
beck's camp ! ' It was indeed a strange coincidence that 
the two officers had come u]3on the river in a spot that 
could not be passed unnoticed, as it is marked by two 
immense adansonias that are standins^ close to the river 
side, with their stems grown together, a few metres west 
from the mouth of a small brook. If those adanso- 
nias are not the only trees of this species that meet 
the traveller's eye on the Cassai, they are certainly the 



most striking. We landed here, and found the camp 
of our countrymen marked by some small grass sheds, 
besides a great many remnants of dried fish and the 
skull of an antelope. In order to mark the place for 
the future I cut with a hatchet a large and distinct ' K ' 
into the largest adansonia. Astronomical observations 
made at the request of Kund proved the place to be in 
3° 4 J ' S. and 18° 41' E. We could not but acknowledg-e 


that, considering the savageness of the natives, it was a 
laudable achievement, with so small and comparatively 
weak an expedition as Kund's was, to pass the stream in 
this spot, so immensely broad, intersected with banks 
and islands covered with reeds. On ascertaining the 
latitude of this place we proved that Kund's supposition 
of having passed the Quango and Quilu is right, and 
that the latter falls into the Quango, as between this 


passage and the mouth of the Quango we could not have 
missed the mouth of such an imj)ortant river as the Quilu 
in its lower course must be. 

When sailing down before Kund's exjDedition we had 
been struck with the above-named adansonias, which we 
accordingly made a note of. The latitude, as we ascer- 
tained at this place when last staying there, corresponds 
with that taken now by Grenfell, while on our map we 
marked the adansonias farther east in 19° 8'. The 
vicinity of Mount Pogge, which is conspicuous from a 
long distance, also confirms our supposition that Kund's 
expedition had been carried out north of the Cassai to 
the then quite unknown Lukenja. 

After leaving this interesting place we had a very 
heavy fall of rain without thunder — according to our ex- 
perience and the assertion of some hshermen, quite a* 
singular circumstance. 

Sailing up the left bank for two hours, we found the 
mouth of a river 200 metres broad, although the channel 
was only seventy metres in breadth ; the excess being 
due to an overflow. The average speed was sixty metres 
a minute, the water was almost l)lack, the bottom soft 
and boggy. We were not aljle to ascertain the name of 
this river, and avoided sailing upward, as, on account 
of the overflow and the dark waters, we could not dis- 
tinguish whether we were keeping in the channel or 
moving in the inundated part. The source of this river 
must be in about 6° N., as south of this latitude the 
waters are divided between the Quilu and the Loange, 
which two rivers approach each other to within a short 


Next morning we again passed the mouth of a rivulet 
thirty metres broad. We were now in the Bakutu 
country, a branch of the savage tribe of the Bassongo- 
Mino that gave us so much trouble on going down. 
The numerous villages were emptied wherever the natives 
caught sight of us. The straight streets of the village 
were only enlivened by black pigs, which are bred here in 
large numbers, and by the African pariah dog, which is. 
generally the same everywhere. The fishermen fled in hoL 
haste, pushing their slender canoes ashore, and nothing 
could induce them to answer our questions ; which greatly 
annoyed me, as I wanted to show some of the tribe that 
our fighting at the time had only been for the purpose 
of defending ourselves. The Bakutu seemed to be an 
exceptionally excitable race, as may be inferred from the 
following observation, which I made when going down. 
Nearly all the warriors killed in this l^attle were wounded 
not only by our balls but also by one of their own long 
javelins. This could not possibly be accidental, as on our 
side we had to record only very slight wounds. I there- 
fore conjectured that the fleeing warriors would not 
allow any of their companions that they could not take 
with them to fall alive into our hands, and for this 
reason gave them the final thrust themselves. 

Wlien we reached the Bangodi country the natives. 
gave us, on the whole, a friendly welcome ; only in the 
village a dispute arose among some tipsy Bangodi and 
our men, whom they had robbed of a newly purchased 
fowl. The number of natives who, alarmed by the 
noise, appeared upon the scene with their arms in- 
creased, and the women disappeared. I went ashore 


to settle the dispute, called our men from among the 
crowd of natives, and sent them on before me to the 
bank, where the boat was in waiting for us. The 
Bangodi who had remained behind were mostly drunk ; 
they took up a threatening position, and I, escorting 
our men, and not wishing to turn so as to show fear, 
walked backwards towards the boat with my cocked 
gun directed against the closely following natives. 
When the men who were watching us from the boat 
warned me that the excited natives meant violence, 
firing both the barrels of my gun would have scared 
them away. They, however, did not venture an attack, 
but only pursued me with their threats as I was walking 
in front of them, regardless of their uproar. 

In the Bangodi country, instead of the oil palm 
generally met with on the banks, we found the fan 
palm, though apparently palms only grew on the 
islands and on the narrow tracts along the river. 
Further landward we saw nothing but wood, here and 
there relieved by places cleared for plantations. 

On the 5th we again came upon the mouth of a 
dark brown river, the Sali-Lebue, sixty metres broad 
and on an average four metres deep, with a speed of 
seventy metres a minute. The bottom was soft and 
boggy, and the water had a temperature of 81° 
(Fahrenheit), the same as the Cassai had been found to 
have for some distance. According to the observations 
•of my former expeditions across the upper tributaries 
of the Cassai, this river must likewise rise north of the 
sixth degree. 

The Lebue forms the boundary between the Bangodi 


and the numerous tribe of tlie Badinga. The latter 
are the most dexterous river navigators I know ; a full- 
manned canoe, in which twelve men, standing behind 
each other, were handling oars of two metres' length, 
managed to keep up with the ' Peace.' Such a full- 
manned canoe is a beautiful sight, with the stalwart, 
muscular, dark-brown figures smoothly swinging their 
oars up and down so as to keep the plumes on their 
heads in wild motion. Eesting one foot on the edge of 
the vessel, they made the slender canoe glide rapidly 
along the yellow water, singing in rough tones to the 
vigorous strokes of their oars. The Badinga always 
strike me as having particularly muscular thighs and 
calves. Their gait appears heavy, probably from their 
almost living on canoes. They have their plantations 
on islands or close to the river ; the palms that furnish 
them with wine likewise grow near the water, and on 
their fishing expeditions they have to make use of a 

The everyday life of the Badinga requires, on the 
whole, very little exercise besides rowing. In the 
morning the men, after having basked in the first rays 
of the sun, will inspect their weir-baskets, collect into 
their calabashes the wine that during the night has 
been gathering in the palms, and perhajjs visit a 
neighbouring village on the river-side. Then they re- 
turn home and partake of the meal meanwhile cooked 
by their wives, consisting of manioc porridge and 
roasted sweet potatoes, with dried fish, after which they 
give themselves up to the enjoyment of their palm- 
wine. Thus, in districts where the palm grows plenti- 


full}-, you will often find tlie male part of tlie population 
in a state of intoxication. For this reason, therefore, 
it is not advisable to visit such countries in the after- 
noon, for the negro, when intoxicated, is easily inclined 
to quarrel ; he will at such times even lose the timidity 
habitual to him ; while, if you arrive in the morning, 
the people have not had time to get into their daily fit 
of drunkenness, and have enough to do in discussing 
the wonderful stranger and in preparing their sales. 
You will very seldom find tipsy women ; they have too 
much work to do to be able to enjoy their wine un- 
disturbed, as they have to manage the whole farm. 
Then they have the meals to cook for their lords and 
masters, to get the fish ready for drying, to keep their 
cottacres clean — which is mostly done with the utmost 
neatness — and to perform those general duties that also 
fall to the share of our wives and mothers, though 
there is not much required of a mother here, the baby 
neoToes being literally left to self-education. 

We were struck by the wild rough tones of the 
Badinga voice, which, in the excitement of transacting 
business, assumes the most extraordinary modulations. 

The Mudinga are inveterate traders. In some places, 
where probably those Europeans who had gone up 
with my Baluba had purchased weapons, the people 
brouo-ht everything for sale that they could lay hold 
of, as the white men will buy everything, down to large 
pieces of dry wood to line their canoes with. 

The banks of the Cassai now begin to ascend to a 
level height of from thirty to fifty metres, and are covered 
with wood, unless where manioc and maize plantations, 


with tlieir briglit green foliage, contrast with the dark 
^reen tints of the primaeval forest. They are densely 
populated. The stream often decreases in breadth ; one 
may on an average calculate that at 800 metres the 
currents grow stronger, and in or behind the curves of 
the banks sand will collect and disappear with incredible 
rapidity. This sand consists of minute particles of very 
hard quartz, which if trodden upon produces a singing 
sound — and this highly amused the negroes of our party. 
When we landed in the evening close to the forest, 
which was partly overflowed by the waters of the 
Cassai, now at their greatest height, we had an oppor- 
tunity of seeing an interesting hunt. On an ant-hill 
towering above the inundated ground we saw a lizard 
about the length of a hand creeping up to a tiny little 
shrew-mouse. The latter, spying the enemy, tried to 
escape, and at last jumped into the water, but was 
seized there by the pursuing lizard and dragged down 
into the deep. 

On the 6th we entered the Sali-Temboa, so called 
after the junction of the Loange and Lushiko, from a 
southern direction ; three kilometres above the mouth 
we found by measurement, with an average depth of 
three metres of water, a breadth of 100 metres, and a 
speed of 120 metres a minute : which allowed us to pro- 
ceed but slowly. The bottom was partly sand, partly 
mud, and the water was so saturated with iron clay as 
to present a decided orange tint. Close to the mouth 
— formed by two channels, which together are 230 
metres broad — the river, with the same rapidity, is only 
one-and-a-half to two metres deep. 


A short distance above we came upon the hutSy 
the only remnants of my down journey. They were 
one metre under water, which proves that since then 
the river had risen about one-and-a-half metre in its 
shallowest part. 

On the 8th we reached the mouth of the Sankurru. 
On entering the southern branch of its mouth we 
learned from the natives that a small steamer (Dr. 
Wolf's ' En Avant ') had a short time ago returned from 
a downward journey on the Sankurru to go up the 
Cassai. We found the stream to be joined above its 
delta, and ascertained a breadth of 450 metres by an 
average depth of five-and-a-half metres and a current 
of forty-five metres a minute. Sailing down the northern 
branches round the delta island, we found the current 
less rapid than during the dry season, when we could 
even make the iron boat go against the current of this 

The islands near the mouth of the Sankurru showed, 
as is always the case near the junctions of several rivers, 
a great deal of animal life. The number of hippopo- 
tami was as large as at the mouth of the Quango, 
and of crocodiles as well; one of which hit the boat 
such a blow as to make us fear that the screws might 
break. The length of one of these ravenous reptiles 
we estimated at fully eight metres, with a proportion- 
ate breadth and height. 

In order to draw a parallel between the water mass 
of the Sankurru and that of the Cassai, we next day 
made measurements fifteen sea-miles above the mouth 
of the Sankurru. The breadth was 750 metres, the 


average depth seven-and-a-half metres, and the speed 
sixty-five metres a minute ; the result of which is a water 
mass three times as larore as that of the Sankurru. 

Having been able to buy a good supply of firewood, 
we next day proceeded at full speed up stream towards 
the mouth of the Lulua. We were surprised to find 
that frequently in the bends of the river the banks had 
slipped, where they often descend perpendicularly into 
the water, from a height of twenty-five metres ; once, far 
ahead, we even saw a whole wall of earth slip down, at 
the same time burying among the deep yellow waves a 
gigantic tree that had grown on the water's edge. The 
largest river boat would, if close to such a sliding^ 
mass, be dashed to pieces or capsized by the body of 
water that, after having first been stopped, rushes along 
with redoubled force. 

The prima3val forest was everywhere enlivened by 
numerous parrots and hosts of monkeys, but directly 
after sunset the deep silence of the desert prevails, 
which, as a European, you will never experience on your 
native continent. Be it imagination, be it excitement 
of the nerves, the slightest sound which at night in- 
terrupts the deep quiet seems to startle you. The 
piercing shrieks of the nocturnal monkey, the splash- 
ing of a fish pursued by a crocodile, or the deep thun- 
dering of the hippopotamus, causes the auricular nerves 
to be continually on the alert. On one of those quiet 
evenings I had encamped with my attendants near our 
landing-place, when a melodious hymn sung by many 
voices suddenly interrupted the dead silence, Mr. 
Grenfell, on board the ' Peace,' was having evening 



prayers, and I must confess that this solemn music 
under such circumstances produced the most elevating- 

On the 12th, at noon, we saw at a distance the mouth 
of the Lulua, which I had seen on a former occasion, 
and soon after I descried some white-robed figures close 
to the mouth. These latter could only be my people, 
for the Bakuba, as well as the Mukete and other na- 
tive traders about here, have no white materials for 
clothing ; their stuffs are only black or brown-red. On 
approaching, we actually discovered the steamer ' En 
Avant ' immediately above the mouth of the Lulua with 
my men on board, who, excited at the approach of our 
vessel, were running to and fro, beckoning to us the 
while. A boat despatched by the ' En Avant ' reached 
us just when we were casting anchor, and its occupant, 
the commander of the ' En Avant,' a gentleman from the 
Congo State under Dr. Wolf's command, informed us 
that Dr. Wolf, with the gunsmith Schneider, who had 
now taken the office of engineer on the 'En Avant,' 
had landed near the steamer. From his report it ap- 
peared that Dr. Wolf, after having terminated his ex- 
pedition on the Sankurru, had been intending to explore 
that part of the Cassai which is above the mouth of 
the Lulua, when for the third time in this place the 
eno-ine had been damac^ed to such an extent as to forbid 
every attempt at repair. 

I landed at once, that I might find my old friend and 
comrade Wolf. He was just returning from an expedi- 
tion ; and, in our mutual sincere delight at meeting, we 
shook hands, and in a rapid discourse, carried on like 




liglitning, we made each 
other acquainted with the 
most interestincf events 
since the time of our sepa- 
ration. I now learned that 
Wolf, after his return from 
Stanley Pool with the 
' Stanley,' had stopped 
where the Luebo falls into 
the Lulua. As the Lulua 
"was no longer navigable here, he had, assisted by the 
•returning caravan, cleared the impenetrable primseval 

D 2 



forest in a place suitable for the founding of a station, 
and by building huts and fortifications he had formed 
what was now the port of Luluaburg. Wolf had then 
marched up to Luluaburg, and had found the station, 
under the approved command of our faithful Bugslag, 
in an excellent condition, and had just been in time to 
join the joyful entrance of the returning Baluba into 
Kalamba's capital. After settling his business in Ka- 
lamba's country, he had returned to the Luebo, there 
to make preliminary arrangements for erecting the 
station ; and then he had gone down in the ' En Avant ' 
to the Sankurru to thoroughly explore the latter, with 
its river system. On his return from this expedition, 
he had again been at the Luebo ; and two da3^s before 
our meeting him here, on his way to explore the 
Cassai upward, he had broken down with his steamer. 

My friend, alas ! in the midst of his work in the 
Togo country on his march to Dahomey had succumbed 
to the fever. The contents of his diaries, placed at my 
disposal by his parents, are added in the next chapter, 
and give evidence of his valuable and ever-restless 





Foundation of Luebo station — Luluabiu-g — Exploration of the Sankurru 
— The condition of the ' En Avant_' — Savage steersmen — Effect of a 
glaring colour — Brass and copper, African gold — Intimidation of some 
Bassange for their impudence — ' The Sankurru is good, the Lubilash 
wicked' — Zappu Zapp — Caution! On the Lubi — The'EnAvant' in 
danger — A new river — Lomami ? — Average — Ethnography — At the 

The description of my second journey 'Ini Innern 
Afrikas ' and the exploration of the Cassai concludes 
with my departure for Madeira, which ill-health had 
made necessary. Before leaving I had installed Dr. 
Wolf, the oldest officer of my expedition, as com- 

After my leaving Stanley Pool, Wolf expedited the 


construction of the largest Congo steamer, the ' Stanley,* 
so that he was able to start on October 5, 1885, ta 
conduct our Bashilange, who had accompanied us on 
our exploration of the Cassai, back to their country. 
Besides the ' Stanley,' which, after disembarking the 
Bashilange, was immediately to return to Stanley Pool,. 
the small steamer ' En Avant ' was entrusted to Wolf. 

The Bashilange had been great sufferers during their 
several months' stay at Stanley Pool, and many an 
ardent hemp -smoker had been carried off by inflamma- 
tion of the lungs. So it was natural that their delight 
should be great on being embarked for their return to 
the Lulua, their beloved home. The two steamers took 
twenty-eight days in sailing up the river to where the 
Luebo falls into it, and above which the navigation is. 
stopped by rapids. The whole passage was accom- 
plished satisfactorily. The ' Stanley,' with very nearly 
250 people on board, besides a great deal of luggage, 
went along splendidly, in spite of the medium depth of 
the water. On November 7 the boats cast anchor off a 
neck of land formed by the confluence of the Luebo 
and the Lulua, which was at the time covered with im- 
penetrable forests. The first thing Wolf did was to clear 
a place that he thought suitable for building a station ;, 
and, as he had persuaded Kalamba and all his men ta 
stay and assist him, the work was completed in a com- 
paratively short time. In spite of their long absence from 
home, in spite of their longing to join their wives and 
children, the honest people, at Wolf's request, consented 
to stay with him for the present. 

The surrounding tribes, by no means relishing the- 



idea that the white men should settle there, were kept in 
check by their presence until the day of their departure, 
when tliey left the station in so favourable a condition 
that, with the remaining garrison, it could hold out 
against any attack of the Bakete or Bakuba. 

Lieutenant Bateman, formerly an English officer, was 
placed under Wolf's command, and, with some of our 
soldiers and several Bashilange, remained at the Luebo, 
while Wolf accompanied Kalamba and his men. A 
five days' march brought him to Luluaburg, where he 
met Bugslag, who had meanwhile been improving the 
station in every respect. Wolf then entered Kalamba's 
residence in state, followed by Kalamba himself, Sangula, 
Chingenge, and their faithful attendants.^ 

When Wolf had given Bugslag directions for the 
next few months, he hastened back to the Luebo to 
hurry on the building of the new station and to start 
with the steamer ' En Avant,' which was placed at his 
disposal for the exploration of the tributaries of the 
Cassai, and, above all, of the Sankurru. 

This really very old vessel, without even a deck, was 
in an extremely bad condition, as Wolf had not been 
allowed time to have it thoroughly repaired on the 
Congo, nor had he any spare stores with him. The 
command of this vessel was entrusted to one Captain 
Van der Felsen, while the engineering duties were per- 
formed by our shrewd gunsmith Schneider, who, in 
spite of the most difficult circumstances, showed him- 

^ Wolfs diaries, which are at my disposal, begin at a much later 
l^eriod. I can, therefore, onlj' repeat these facts as I remember them 
from his communications. 


self perfectly equal to tlie task, as was proved by events 
which will be mentioned later. 

On January 9, 1886, the preparations for a longer 
expedition were completed, and Wolf left the Luebo. 
Although he had twice joassed the mouth of the San- 
kurru, and had entered the Cassai with me in the iron 
boat, it was yet difficult to find the confluence of the 
two rivers. This time the colour of the Sankurru, which, 
as a rule, is darker than that of the Cassai — the rivers 
are of a different colour in the different seasons, owing to 
the heavy rain — was not distinguishable. The labyrinth 
of islands and banks and the delta of the Sankurru have 
the appearance of a maze. Wolf kept on the right side of 
the Cassai until he saw by the difference in current that 
he was on the Sankurru. This tributary flowed from a 
NNE. direction, and the main river from SSE. The 
northern bank forms at the mouth of the Sankurru a 
high and steep wall of red laterite ; the shores are 
covered with savannahs of trees and underwood. The 
delta island reminds one of our marshy alder groves ; 
even the trees with which the low land is covered re- 
semble our alder, except that they are much thicker. 

The Sankurru soon opens into a beautifully majestic 
river of a breadth of 2,000 to 3,000 metres, and an aver- 
age depth of three metres. The banks vary more than 
on the Cassai ; sloping hills now and again interrupt the 
long stretches of wood, and often command a view of 
apparently endless prairies. Whenever the men were 
engaged in cutting firewood, Wolf made brief inland 
expeditions in order to gain an idea of the inner country 
and to form an opinion of the natives ; in short, to find 


out what it was that the wooded banks, the high reeds, 
or the rattan jungles were trying to veil from the eyes of 
the traveller. 

They made but slow progress, as the engine of the 
* En Avant ' was in a very bad condition. After a day 
or two, worn-out steam-pipes and fire-bars had to be 
supplied by gun-barrels ; and as Wolf had never cal- 
culated upon having to use his firearms in this manner, 
his fighting strength was greatly diminished. 

While the water of the Sankurru retained the dark 
clay colour, the rivulets and brooks flowing from a 
northern direction were of a deej) black. The abundance 
of fish in this river was marvellous ; one kind of eel 
especially, which was frequently offered for sale by the 
natives, was of a very good flavour. The number of 
hippopotami was not much less than on the Cassai, while 
crocodiles were far more plentiful. One nuisance that 
we had not to complain of when exploring the Cassai, 
we were here made sensible of to an unusual extent : the 
mosquitoes, in spite of their diminutive size, were so 
bloodthirsty and so numerous, that we seldom succeeded 
in shutting them out from the protecting curtains. 
These insects, even more irritating from their loud 
buzzino; than from their stino- were a oiTat drawback to 
the pleasant evenings ; for the sun, when he is declining, 
loses his scorching power, and a refreshing breeze floats 
through the valley, while animal life begins to stir every- 
where, which gives the European an oj)portunity for 
interesting observations. 

The left bank is inhabited by the Bakuba, the right 
by different tribes of the Bassongo-Mino race. The 


canoes were even larger than those on the Cassai ; 
in one of them Wolf counted eighty warriors. The 
banks were thickly inhabited, if we may judge from the 
number of boats that accompanied the 'En Avant/ 
Sometimes upwards of fifty of these slender vessels,, 
made of some brown or red wood, gathered round the 
steamer. Ofl they darted in a grand race past the ' En 
Avant,' and then waited for her approach, showing their 
delight at their victory by shouting and beating against 
the sides of the boat with the palms of their hands ; after 
which, they would begin the race for a second time. 
They accompanied the strong strokes of their oars with 

The territory of the Bassongo-Mino, to which that 
of the Bashobe and Butoto was joined, extended to about 
the twenty-third degree of longitude. This same degree 
was on the left bank the boundary of tlie Bakuba. As 
they had treated us on the Cassai, the Bassongo-Mino- 
met Wolf now in a hostile manner, though no fight took 
place, until Temba, the daughter of a powerful Bankutu 
chief named Gaj)etsh, came to negotiate for peace. 
Fearless, with only few attendants, she came alongside 
the steamer to sell ivory and articles skilfully woven 
from palm-fibres. She asked for brass and coloured 
stuffs in return, and thus gave the first impulse for a 
peaceful intercourse. This news was quickly spread, 
and had advantageous consequences. 

That reminds me of a very singular occurrence in 
my bargaining with the Bakuba. I once bought an 
elephant's tusk, for Avliich the salesmen asked cloth- 
ing materials. Wishing to make an impression upon 


them, I suddenly unfolded before tlieir eyes a piece of 
glaring red stuff. The effect was entirely different from 
what I had expected. With a shriek of terror the 
Bakuba jumped up, covered their eyes, and fled for a 
short distance. The effect seemed to me the same as the 
report of a gun : as this sudden and unknown noise 
startles the ear, so the eye is surprised by the sudden 
appearance of a strange colour. 

But to return to Wolf. He accepted the invitation 
of the amiable Princess Temba and accompanied her to 
her village. They had first to pass through a thick 
growth of wood joined by undulating savannahs. Then 
they passed well-cultivated maize and manioc planta- 
tions, the luxuriant growth of which is produced by a 
thick layer of vegetable earth. The village was built 
after a regular plan, with broad streets, overshadowed 
by fan-palms. The natives behaved in an exceedingly 
pacific way. They brought Wolf quantities of palm- 
wine, and on his return to the river a chief offered to 
conduct him up the stream. 

Wolf was greatly surprised to find ornaments of 
brass here, which, as we knew, came from the Congo, 
the precious metal exported from the south being copper. 
Another proof that these nations are connected with 
those further north, and that the traders of the Cono-o, 
probably the Bayanzi, must go long distances up the 
Mfini-Lukenja, was the circumstance that here they 
wore the same massive rings round the neck as there, 
and that the natives said they had bought these orna- 
ments up to fifteen kilogrammes in weight in exchange 
for ivory from the Lukenja, a river that was five days* 


journey further north. They asked Wolf to stay and 
build a house, offering at the same time to cut down all 
the trees on the bank so as to allow the large fire-canoe 
sufficient room for mooring. 

Farther up the stream the natives were less peace- 
fully disposed ; the foUow^ers of a great chief, Jongolata, 
were most insolent in the camp, where Wolf had esta- 
blished himself for a few days, in consequence of a 
repair of the engine l^eing necessary. (Jne day, when 
some goods had been spread for drying, some full-manned 
canoes approached, from the foremost of which a hand- 
some tall warrior jumped out. He was carrying his 
bow and arrows, and, supported by his attendants, soon 
began to perform a wild dance. 

The Bassongo, feeling they were strong in numbers, 
came into the camp, in order by their insolent be- 
haviour to frustrate any amicable intercourse. Guns 
being unknown to them, they ver}^ likely thought Wolfs 
followers to be without arms. These insolent warriors 
made sarcastic remarks about Wolf and his men ; their 
especial attention was excited by a rather fat Zanzibari, 
from which it would appear that embonpoint is rare 
in these parts. The chief, Jongolata, soon became so 
impudent that Wolf, apprehending an outrage, took 
out his pistol, which he fired close before the chief's 

The effect was overpowering ; the chief was trembling 
all over, and the bold warriors took to flight, so that 
they had gained their canoes before Wolf had overtaken 
them, when he found them most civil in their manners. 
Jongolata made him presents of some poultr}^ and took 


liis leave with vivid protestations of friendship. These 
Bassongo are generally slim, tall-grown people, not so- 
clumsy and muscular as the Bakuba ; they are supposed 
to be inveterate cannibals. 

Farther up the stream no intercourse seemed to be 
carried on, either towards the north or with the Lower 
Sankurru. Nothing was found to indicate commerce — 
no brass, nor beads, nor stuffs, but ivory in abundance, 
offered at a very low price. 

On February 18, Wolf dropped anchor in the very 
place where Pogge and I, in 1882, discovered and passed 
the Sankurru. Wolf also learned here from the Bena- 
Kotto and the Baluba that the river flowed always 
towards the north. This may be accounted for by the 
fact that at the confluence of the Lubi and the San- 
kurru all intercourse of the nations appears to cease 
altogether. Wolf found out, as I had likewise done 
three years before, that the river from this point up- 
ward is called Lubilash, and a chief of the Kotto, who 
talked to him much about Pogge and myself, said to him : 
' The Sankurru is good, the Lubilash wicked,' meaning 
that navigation would now prove difficult and danger- 
ous, while in the river flowing downwards and called 
Sankurru it was good. This prophecy soon came true. 
The continued soundings, having mostly revealed clayey 
ground, now suddenly came upon stones. The river, 
with a strong current, often forced itself between steep 
rocks of granite and laterite, with only 100 metres breadth 
and three metres depth. Wolf passed four moderately 
strong currents, after which he ran aground, and in con- 
sequence gave up every attempt to advance any farther. 


Up to a village on the river inhabited by the Batondoi, 
•of the Bakuba race, Wolf proceeded by land, and found 
the river narrowed to twenty-five metres, with an ex- 
ceptionally strong current. 

On his march back, Wolf fell in with the well-known 
•chief Zappu Zapp, of whom he had heard on going up. 
The chief had sent two of his sons to the river with 
presents, with the request that he would wait for Zappu 
Zapp. The messengers told Wolf that he was the first 
white man that had come to visit their chief; two 
others — meaning Pogge and myself — not having ac- 
cepted his invitation. Zappu Zapp was not a slave- 
hunter, as Wolf had conjectured ; but, as I found several 
months later, he had moved westward as far as the 
Sankurru, in order to evade Tibbu Tib's roving troops. 

To Wolf, Zappu Zapp called himself a friend of the 
Arabs, as, being misled by Pogge's and my journey to 
Nyangwe, he supposed the white men to be on friendly 
terms with them. Wolf found the great chief await- 
ing him in the appointed place with many warriors. 
Zappu Zapp had some guns which the Arab Djuma 
Bin Salim, called Famba, had once sold to him. As 
Pamba had been living with him for nearly a year, Zappu 
Lapp's warriors had adopted many customs of the 
Wanyamwesi, who belonged to Famba's party, as well 
-as some scraps of the Suaheli language ; so that the 
.Zanzibaris who attended Wolf had been delighted at 
beinof reminded of their native countrv. 

As all the chiefs who have once communicated 
with Arab traders consider the possession of guns and 
plenty of powder as the only means to power and 


wealth, Zappu Zapp requested Wolf to give liim guns in 
exchange for ivory, which he carried with him in great 
-quantities. On Wolf's decided refusal, Zappu Zapj^ began 
to reflect whether it would be possible to possess him- 
.self of the guns by force ; and, considering Wolf's inferior 
power, this supposition seemed justified. Both Wolf's 
■caution and respect for his person evidently prevented 
the attempt, as at their first meeting he had shown a 
self-possession that greatly intimidated the strangers. 

Wolf dropped anchor close to the land, and requested 
the chief to advance from out of the crowd of warriors to 
welcome him ; Zappu Zapp, however, preferred hiding 
Among the crowd who were begging Wolf to land. 
When Wolf did so, followed by only one man^ — the others 
liad remained on board ready with their guns, whilst 
«ome Krupp cannon were pointed towards the troops 
■of warriors — and fearlessly approached the people, the 
•chief timidly advanced and saluted him. 

It is often the case, as it was in this instance, that such 
unlooked-for dauntlessness, unaccountable to the negro, 
makes a marked impression upon him ; it has more than 
•once happened to me that the natives, after some such 
a scene, would ask : ' How is it that the white man has no 
fear, for all his being so weak and not nearly a match 
for us ? He must possess a charm that makes him in- 

Zappu Zapp, Wolf says, was, like his sons, clad after 
the Arab fashion, with a cloth round his hips, over 
which he wore a long white shirt ; whilst a handkerchief 
was twisted round his head like a turban. The warriors 
only wore the national costume, consisting of a head- 



dress of red parrots' plumes, which was held by a band of 
cowrie shells strung like a diadem. The upper part of 
the body was naked, with small lines tattooed on the 
breast and back ; the hips were covered with brownish 
red cloths bordered with yellow, which were arranged in 
many plaits and ornamented with tassels. In the arm- 
hole hung a short filagree knife inlaid with copper, and 
fastened to a cord across the shoulder. Most of them 


carried spears and bows ; only some of them had small 
percussion guns, imported from the East. Zappu Zapp's 
men, as I stated before, are of the Bassongo tribe, living 
north and south of the Baluba. The ill-humour caused 
by their disappointment at not getting any guns was 
removed by some presents from Wolf, which were re- 
turned by Zappu Zapp. 

When Wolf reached the mouth of the Lubi he 


entered it and sailed up the stream until lie first touched 
the Bena-Ngongo, the same tribe that had robbed us on 
my first expedition, and then attacked Pogge when 
returning by himself. The people who came to the 
bank called out to Wolf to stop or come again, as they 
wished to atone by a payment for their past offence to 
the white man. This was evidently the cunning of the 
insolent and thievish vagabonds, who wished to induce 
Wolf to land, since his small force seemed more tempt- 
inof than Poo-o-e's caravan had done : for, when Wolf 
landed on coming back, the peo]3le had nothing ready 
that Wolf might have accepted as an indemnity ; he 
■only met an assembly of armed men, part of whom were 
trying to hide from him. 

The Lubi soon narrowed to sixty metres, and often 
•suddenly changed its course. In one of its bends the 
' Ell Avant ' was driven violently ashore, so that over- 
hanging branches caught the thatched awning con- 
structed by Wolf; while the strong current drifted the 
boat along sideways, and the ' En Avant ' would have 
capsized had not the pillars of the awning been broken 
and gone overboard. A great deal of water penetrated 
into the steamer ; the hencoop with its occupants, a 
Winchester gun, and many other things were washed 
■overboard, and the fires were extinguished. This acci- 
dent shows how necessary it is on such journeys always 
to carry boats with sufiicient room for the crew, and, if 
possible, not to tow them alongside of the steamer, but 
fastened to a sufficiently long rope. There ought also 
to be a man in the boats to throw out the cable in case 
any mishap should occur. 




Wolf did not go up the Lubi any farther, but sailed 
down the stream and stopped in the Sankurru at the- 
landing-place of the Bena-Lussambo. He had proceeded 
to about fifteen kilometres north of the place where 
Pogge and I had passed the Lubi, whose waters are 
reddish -brown. Wolf says much in praise of the luxu- 
riant tropical vegetation of its banks, on which thickets, 
of palm-trees, impenetrable jungles of pine-apples, and 
suo-ar plantations alternate with primaeval forests. 

Wolf made friends with Ilunga, the chief of the 
Lussambo, and bought a number of valuable objects 

for a collection, which 
I found a subsequent 
opportunity of complet- 
ing at the same place. 
Wood-carving may be 
considered as a special 
branch of industry of 




this tribe : driiikiiig-liorns fashioned after the liorn of 
the buffalo, goblets of great variety of shape, evincing 
much taste, beautiful spear-handles, and a series of 
articles variously ornamented, were to be found here. 
A large milky white pearl was mostly in request. 

Keeping along the right bank, which was covered 
with thickets of the Raphia vinifera, or rattan. Wolf on 
March 9 discovered the mouth of a river whose water 
was of a more decided yellow than that of the Sankurru, 
and whose breadth was about 100 metres. The natives 
called it Lukenja, a word that with the Bassongo tribes 
evidently means ' river,' as in their country we know 
several water-courses of that name. The banks rose 
to a height of 200 metres, and were richly wooded. 
Natives were nowhere to be seen ; only twice were some 
discovered on trees, but they timidly fled when they were 
approached. For three days the journey was continued, 
until some warriors on the right bank, who called them- 
selves Basselle-Kungo, and named the river Laethshu, 
could be questioned. The left bank, they supposed, 
was inhabited by the Batetela, the western branch of 
a large tril^e, the eastern members of which I once met 
near the Middle Lomami. The people, by their stu- 
pidity, presented a great contrast to the natives we had 
hitherto seen ; it made a strange impression to hear their 
' Yeeh, yeeh,' as an expression of surprise. The popu- 
lation was scanty, but game was plentiful and very 
bold. The hippopotami were feeding on the banks in 
broad daylight. 

The river soon expanded to 150 metres in breadth. 
The banks became flat, now and then boggy, and 

E 2 


thickets stretcliiiig far into the water made it a daily 
difficulty for us to land to cut firewood. Not having 
been able to buy provisions in these dreary parts for five 
days, we began to feel hungry. Wolf himself had for 
some days been living on some mouldy beans. The 
expeditions he undertook on an empty stomach, in order 
to remedy this want by killing some game, remained 
without success. 

Until now I have passed over Wolf's complaints 
about the condition of his vessel ; some damage and some 
repair have been mentioned daily, and much has been 
said in praise of the gunsmith Schneider, who always 
managed to find out some ingenious remedy. At last, 
on March 15, Wolf found some natives to communicate 
with, and it was not any too soon, for the engine and 
the empty stomachs of the crew were sadly in want of 
restoratives. The natives called themselves Bena-Yehka, 
and the name of the river was — ' Lomami ! ' One 
may imagine how joyfully surprised Wolf felt at this 
news. He thought he had discovered that the Lomami, 
which I in 1882 had crossed with Pogge, as Cameron 
had done before, in taking a turn across the west, fell 
here into the Sankurru and considerably lengthened the 
navigable water-line from Stanley Pool to the east. 

Since then, further explorations of this Lomami 
have been undertaken, and have proved that close above 
the place reached by Wolf the river began rapidly to 
narrow. At the same time a steamer had gone up 
another Lomami — which in 1° N. falls into the Lualaba 
— and proceeded so far that, since then, it has again 
been a point of dispute whether the Lomami which I 



crossed in 1882 is the upper course of the latter or of 
the river navioated bv Wolf. 

One of my companions on my last journey, Lieutenant 
Le Marinel, whose acquaintance the reader will be 
making in the course of this narrative, is just now en- 
gaged in endeavouring to clear up this matter. 

The Bena-Yehka did not belong to the Batetela, who 
are notorious everywhere for their fierceness ; they "\rere 


peaceable and quite inclined to trade. Their huts, 
shaped like a gable house, and constructed of bark 
and palm ribs, were neat and cleanly. They had their 
hair dressed in a band, like a thick black caterpillar, 
reaching from the forehead down to the back ; the sides 
of the skull were not only shaved, but tattooed in con- 
centric rings reaching very nearly to the cheek-bone and 
the eye. 


The Yelika are great hunters, whicli is testified, by 
their various weapons, the most striking of which are 
arrows, used like harpoons. 

The river was in possession of the inhabitants of 
the right bank, the Balunbangando, with their chief Oto ;: 
they are cannibals belonging to the Bankuto, and also to 
the Bassongo-Mino. All the countries I know between 
the Lomami and Lualaba are inhabited throughout by 
cannibals ; they will, however, rarely confess to being 
partial to human flesh ; generally they deny this, and 
accuse of this vice the tribe with whom they are at en- 
mity. Wolf gave Oto an old hat ; in return he, highly 
delighted, brought him a kid, fowls, some manioc, 
and palm-wine. 

Until the 19tli Wolf remained here. His crew lived 
on yam, the chief food of the Yehka ; then provisions 
were bought, and the engine was repaired as well as 
could be under the circumstances. The condition of the 
' En Avant ' was such as to make it impossible to go up 
the river any farther. The axle-tree of the wheels was 
broken, though fortunately in an oblique direction. 
Schneider now bored through the axle-tree perpen- 
dicularly, and put in rivets made of iron gun-barrels. 
This slight repair only permitted the engine to work 
slowly, whicli was not suflicient for sailing against the 
strong current of the Lomami. Heavy at heart. Wolf 
began sailing down. He had been in hopes of explor- 
ing the Lomami to where Pogge and I had crossed it 
four years ago. We had arrived at the decision that 
Lomami, the name which it retains during the greater 
part of its course, must be the right name for this river. 


Once back on the Sankurrn, wliicli below the 
point where it receives the Lomami has a breadth of 
nearly 2,000 metres, the ' En Avant ' had to take shelter 
under an island, not being equal to coping with the water 
that, raised by a storm of rain against the current, was 
moving in high and surging waves. 

For several days Wolf remained with a chief named 
Kole, who was very communicative and made many 
geographical disclosures which, being noted down in 
technical words unintelligible to me, I can only repeat 
incompletely. This ' Fumo ' — term for chief — Kole had 
often been mentioned by our Bashilange. He was 
•commercially connected with the southern Baluba and 
knew the way to the Lulua well. He was likewise able 
to give an account of the aborigines, the so-called 
pigmies, whom he called Babecki, while the Baluba had 
•designated them as Batua. On being questioned by 
some Bankutu present, he reported about the north as 
follows ; For many days' journey you would meet only 
the Bassongo-Mino, whose tribes from the south up- 
wards rank as Bajaia, Botecka, Ndongo, Nkole, Bayenga, 
Dongenfuro, Bondo, Lokoddi, Babenge, Bonshina, Don- 
gosoro, Ikangala Joshomo, Bakundu, Banbangala, and 
Barumbe. As it is scarcely likely that these Bangala are 
identical with those north of the Congo, we come upon 
this name here for the third time. The valley of 
Xassanga, on the Upper Quango, is inhabited by the 
Bangala ; we find them as part of the Bassongo-Mino, 
and on the confluence of the Mubangi and the Con^o. 

On March 22 I found in Wolf's diary, 'Very ex- 
cellent palm-wine. Long live the Emperor ! ' 


On the 2 5 til Wolf re-entered the Cassai, and now 
they began to devote themselves to the repair of the 
engine, if only to be able to sail slowly against the 
current of the Cassai, which fortunately was not strong. 
On April 1 they reached the mouth of the Lulua, and 
on the 4th the Luebo station, where the 'En Avant' 
was joyfull}^ welcomed after a four months' absence. 
On this very day provisions had arrived which Bugslag 
had sent from Luluaburg, such as goats, sheep, salt 
pork, rice, bananas, peanut-oil, onions, &c., so that the 
return might be properly celebrated. The exhausted 
' En Avant ' was unloaded, the collections were arranged, 
and the boat was repaired as well as could be ; so that 
Wolf, impelled by the spirit of investigation habitual to 
him, was enabled to leave the station once more. So 
he sailed down the Lulua and up the Cassai to find out 
how far up from the mouth of the Lulua the latter was 

On the morning of AjDril 12, when he had scarcely 
left the Lulua, the axle-tree of the boat broke for the 
second time, but this was such a hopeless case that 
Wolf declared himself unable to repair it with the tools 
he had at hand. Wolf let the boat drift downward, and 
towed himself ashore close above the mouth of the Lulua. 
Scarcely had he been lying at anchor for some hours,, 
after having undertaken a short expedition into the 
primasval forest, when he was entreated by some people 
who had followed him to come back quickly, as a boat 
was in sight. 

Almost the moment Wolf came to the river side I laid 
the ' Peace ' alongside of the ' En Avant,' and a minute 


later embraced my friend, who was as much delighted 
and surprised as I was. He briefly told me how he had 
carried out my orders given him at parting, and what he 
had done respecting the exploration of the river system, 
so promising for the future of these countries. 

It is greatly to be regretted that the death of Wolf, 
which took jDlace at Dahomey, prevented him from de- 
tailing his work himself. The diaries at my disposal 
give a number of short notes, containino- a series of 
meteorological observations which I am unal;)le to de- 

For all that, I am convinced that the reproduction 
of the diaries which end here shows more practical 
knowledge than it would if one uninitiated, wlio knows 
neither people nor country as I do, had undertaken the 
task. My work ' Im Innern Afrikas ' and this chapter 
will give the reader an idea of the energy, the continual 
exertion, the courage, and intimate knowledge that Dr. 
Wolf has employed in working for his illustrious em- 
ployer, the King of the Belgians, for the promotion of 
science and civilisation in the Dark Continent. There 
are few who knew as I did the devotion, the noble dis- 
position of the deceased, and who are for this reason able 
to sympathise with me on his loss. Everyone, from 
whatever motive it may be, will bear W^olf in kind re- 




Progress of Liiebo station — Patrol on the Muieau — Encountering faithful 
Bngslag — Liiluabnrg, a centre of civilisation— Plantations — The breed- 
ing of cattle — Meteorological observations — With Kalamba — Satiir- 
nino de Machado — Hostile Chipulnmba — Punishment of some of our 
soldiers — Up the Cassai with Wolf— An uninhabited wilderness — Tor- 
menting bees — Bars in the river — Wissmann Fall — Wild boars — 
Falling trees — Missed the ' Stanley ' — At the station — Separation from 
W^olf — Punishment of a chief — Balundu — Ambassadors — Settling 
political difficulties at Lubuku — Distribution of the Star-Flag— My 
influence over the Bashilange — Kalamba's visit — Spectacle snake. 

Let us return to April 12, and to tlie confluence of the 
Lulua and the Cassai, where, on returning from the 
coast, I met my friend and companion AYolf after six 
months' separation. 

We sat discussing our adventures and making plans 


for the future till late at iiiglit, under tlie far-overhanging 
foliage of the huge trees of the shore, on the edge of the 
slope, where the enormous yellow floods of the Cassai 
were roUino- alonoj at our feet. We were allowed but a 
short rest ; then we took Wolf on board the ' Peace ' to 
steam up the Lulua to Luebo station, while the com- 
mander of the ' En Avant,' Captain Van der Felsen, and 
the gunsmith Schneider, with some of the crew, remained 
in the boat, which had for the present become unservice- 
able. In honour of this meeting I had a good many 
European provisions, especially liquids, in readiness for 
a grand banquet, the consequences of which not even 
the fresh breeze on the Lulua could undo. 

After sailins^ round some turns of the Lulua we came 
in sight of Luebo station.^ 

From the distance we noticed an open space on the 
water side, w^liich was very striking to the eye after 
having for five days seen nothing but thick, dark forest, 
which now during the rainy season reached down to 
the water's edge and bordered the river all along. 

My light artillery, a present of Mr. Friedrich Krupp's, 
was placed on the shore on a kind of bastion at the ex- 
treme end of the clearing, on a neck of land formed by 
the confluence of the Luebo and the Lulua, to ward off 
any hostile approach by water. Four structures built 
of palisades, neatly lined with clay, and with far-over- 
hanging grass-covered roofs, filled up the end of the 
open space. Towards the land they were protected 
from any attack by a wall of palisades leading from the 

' Vide Illustration. 


Luebo to the Lulua. About 100 metres of ground was- 
bare, with a dark wall of prima3val forest towering 

A great commotion arose at the station on the 
appearance of our steamer. Soldiers, clad in pure 
white, came with their arms ready for parade. On 
our approaching the place, which presented a striking 
appearance by its agreeable change of scene after so 
gloomy a surrounding, a European, Lieutenant Bateman, 
came to salute us at the river side. He had been ap- 
pointed to my expedition by the Congo State, and was 
at present commanding officer of the place. Then we 
landed, and after hearing the favourable report about 
the state of affiiirs we assembled in a mushroom-shaped 
pavilion on the bastion to partake of a refreshing glass 
of palm- wine. 

There was another European present, one Mr. 
Saturnino, a Portuguese merchant, whom I have men- 
tioned in my book of travels ' Unter deutscher Elagge 
querdurch Afrika.' Following my expedition to Lubuku, 
he had tried his fortune with the Bakuba and the Bakete, 
and was greatly satisfied with his purchases of ivory. 

After a close inspection of the station, where the 
dwelling-house was formed of palings — the planning 
of which gave evidence of practical knowledge and great 
diliiience — I took drawings of the Lulua and the Luebo 
to complete my observations of them [vide Appendix), 
and visited the surrounding districts of the Bakete and 
the Bashilange to convince m3'self that the station, the 
provisioning of which for the present depended on pur- 
chases, was on a very good footing with the surrounding 


tribe. A few days afterwards the ' Peace ' returned, 
taking Herr GreshofF and Herr von Nimptscli down 
to Stanley Pool. 

Mr. Grenfell, to whom I was greatly indebted for his 
kind convoy, obligingly promised to pick up the ' En 
Avant ' at the mouth of the Lulua and take her as far as 
the Congo. He took with him a member of my expedi- 
tion, the gunsmith Schneider, who was going home, and 
who, during the whole time of his engagement, had dis- 
tinguished himself by untiring activity and great skill 
and courage. 

The ' Peace ' runnim? ao-round some metres below 
the station made us aware of the fact that some stones 
in the Cassai made it expedient for us to approach the 
station with caution. Fortunately the ' Peace ' got off 
aefain without damao-e. 

On the 22nd, after giving Lieutenant Bateman farther 
directions for his work at the station, I started with 
Wolf on my return journey to Luluaburg. We had 
sent messenoers before us, who were to inform Busfslao- 
of our coming, and to bring the oxen we rode on to 
meet us. In every primaeval forest that I know of in the 
African tropical countries there lives a large black gad- 
fly, somewhat like our hornet, but not the tsetse fly, 
which is fatal to cattle. In 1882 I had lost my last 
bulls on the Tano'anvika throuo'h this insect. 

After a six hours' fatiouino' march in the forest we 
halted at the village of the Bena Kashia. This name 
refers to the dispersion of the tribes of our Bashilange ; 
the main body of the Kashia, being the greater part of 
this tribe, the Baqua Kashia, live in the centre of the 


whole people, close to Luluaburg, and east of them 
lives another tribe of Bena Kasliia. Jealousy among 
the chiefs' families was the usual reason for such dis- 

Part of a large commercial caravan of the Kioque, 
our old enemies, was present ; they were exceedingly 
civil, for, since we had settled here, the time of their 
predominancy over our Bashilange was over. 

We travelled for several days, each day marching 
from thirty to forty kilometres, and discovering several 
districts whose inhabitants had refused to pay tribute 
to Kalamba on his return from the Congo, and, in order 
to avoid his wrath, they were forced to leave their 
country. After leaving the primaeval forest we mostly 
marched through savannahs of trees ; sometimes the 
monotonous, undulating savannah was relieved by deep 
ravines, which on their slopes showed magnificent dark 
red-turreted formations of laterite.^ 

On the 28th we approached the river Muieau, where 
from a distance we were greeted by a pretty clay house, 
lying amongst gracefully arranged gardens, this beings 
the residence of a permanent patrol that Wolf had 
meanwhile established on the most important crossing 
of this river. Three of my old veterans were here, the 
representatives of our force and commanders of the 
canoes. I was quite touched by the sincere delight 
evinced by my old people, companions of my former 
expedition, on recognising me. On the opposite side 
three bulls, well saddled and bridled, were awaiting us 

^ Vide lUustratiou. 



to take us to Luluaburg next day. After crossing the 
river next morning we mounted our bulls ; I took my 
huge old steed that had carried me to Luluaburg two 
years before. We were surprised to find a road of nearly 
eight metres width running in a straight line to the east. 
It turned out later that Bugslag had caused the foot- 
paths round the station to be broadened, and had in- 


structed those chiefs through whose ground the way 
led how to build straight roads. He had succeeded, by 
making those chiefs who did not provide broad paths 
pay fines, in producing beautifully wide roads in all 
directions about a day's journey beyond Luluaburg. 

Towards noon we came in sight of the summit of 
the hill, and soon rode up to the station amidst the re- 
joicings of the crowd assembled from all the villages. 


Along the station hill the roads Avere lined with pleasant 
avenues. Trees, that soon began to sprout, were planted 
at three metres distance in the wall of palisades, thus 
forming a shady circle round the station. It was like 
coming home when, at the gates of the station, I shook 
hands with my honest Bugslag. At the station, whose 
chief buildings had already been finished when we left 
to explore the Cassai, much had been done to give it a 
home-like and cheerful appearance. Plantations had 
l^een laid out everywhere, an entirely new dwelling- 
house had been built very prettily and with great care, 
a nice little garden was in front of it ; in short, a pleasant 
sight met our eyes everywhere. 

Messeno-ers hurried away to inform my friend Ka~ 
lamba and his sister Sangula of my return. This was 
the third time that I had come to Lubuku unexpectedly, 
to the country of my loyal Bashilange, to whom I owed 
so much already. The first time of my coming here was 
with Pogge in 1881. Being the first white men seen by 
the Bashilange, our influence was very great. It was 
with the assistance of these people only that we succeeded 
in reaching the Lualaba ; whence, after separating from 
Pogge, and supported by the Arabs, I proceeded to the 
eastern coast. In the year 1884, coming from the west, 
I returned to the Lubuku country, to ni}^ old friends 
and travelling companions, and, as I had promised 
them, I brought with me a great many white men. 
Once more by the help of the Bashilange the exploration 
of the Cassai w^as made possible, and this took them into 
unknown countries for nearly a year. I then sailed 
down the river towards the sea, and my black friends 


returned home with Wolf. Xow I came back once more, 
and great were the rejoicings everywhere at Kabassu 
Babu's return to his friends. I felt quite at home here, 
recognising each face of the hundreds of negroes who 
lived at the large village near the station ; every one 
of those crowdino- around me was delighted at bein<J' 

In the evening, when we were sitting in the pretty 
verandah of the dwelling-house, ornamented with hip- 
popotamus skulls, antelope's horns, and rarities from the 
desert, I learned that, in spite of the greatest economy, 
Luluaburg was running short of provisions. With 
great reluctance conscientious Bugslag had felt obliged 
to send his treasures down to the Luebo, the buildino- 
of which station had involved great expense. On the 
Luebo, want in this respect was also beginning to be 
felt, and I found myself in the disagreeable position of 
having to inspect two stations with a large number of 
people without the means of maintaining them. The 
fruit of the plantations at Luluaburg was not yet ripe. 
For this reason, therefore, I resolved to buy the most 
indispensable provisions from the Portuguese merchant 
Saturnine, and make these last until the ' Stanley,' with 
the Belgian officers on board, should bring my new 

Next day we inspected the plantation. After the 
first harvest Bugslag had sent many loads of rice down 
to the Luebo. How astonished I was at finding well- 
cultivated fields in places which I only remembered as 
a wilderness ! The low land between the three brooks 
winding along the station hill was covered with rice 



plantations that, in Bugslag's opinion, would easily 
support Luluaburg and Luebo station for six months 
— that is, up to the next harvest. Maize, millet, and 
manioc, covering the gentle slopes of the station hill, 
were thriving. As it had lately been very wet, there 
was not much prospect of a good crop of pea-nuts. In 
the three gardens which were laid out, each according 
to the purpose it was meant for, on the slopes or in the 
valley close to the station, a great deal of fruit and 
ves^etables were bein^f cultivated, such as tomatoes, 
cucumbers, carrots, cabbages, yams, beans, egg-fruits, 
pine-apples, gimboas (foxtail, a very pleasant vegetable). 
Bananas and melon trees bordered the roads every- 
where, and other fruits, such as limes, &c., imported 
from the Congo and Angola, were being grown, besides 

The stock of cattle had greatly increased under 
Bugslag's care, and they were in good condition con- 
sidering the season. In countries where, after the rainy 
season, the grass shoots up to a great height and thick- 
ness, and thus becomes useless as food, circumstances, 
in spite of the greatest care, are not favourable. They 
manage to improve the grass by burning it, after which 
the blades begin to sprout everywhere. The whole 
of Africa is adapted for the breeding of cattle, except 
perhaps in the districts haunted by the black hornet. 
In the eastern part of the continent, where the rainy 
season is shorter than in the western, the grass is more 
soft and tender. In the west, great care should be taken 
to obtain soft grass, which can only be managed by 
burning ; this is done by lighting several fires while 


the grass is proportionalily tender, after wliieli the 
young grass begins to shoot up everywhere. On those 
pastures where large herds of cattle graze, the grass 
is kept the right length, but the cattle should be put 
in places where it has reached the length they prefer. 
They should never be kept where a certain plant 
most dangerous for cattle is found, as many travellers 
have experienced, amongst them Pogge, who at very 
short intervals lost nine bulls in consequence. It 
is well to change the water frequently, unless some 
larger water-course is near. During the night the 
cattle should be put into high places, where a fresh 
breeze will decrease the number of mosquitoes. It 
is therefore advisable not to use a stable during the 
night, but a pent-house, open at the sides, so that in 
exposed places the draught may keep off the said insects. 
The cattle will alwa^^s feed most in the morning and 
evening ; they should therefore be put into shady places 
during the hottest time of the (\.<i\. Our attempt at 
keeping bulls at the Luebo station had been an entire 
failure ; we had lost several in their flights and throuo-h 
other causes, so that we had only three left. 

The cows had increased with unfailing regularitv, 
but had not as yet been trained for being milked ; 
ninety-eight sheep and thirty goats were running wild 
in the vicinity of the station during the day, and were 
driven home in the evenino- after workinfj hours. It is 
strange that the negroes do not keep cattle in droves 
as we do ; but, for want of sliepherds' dogs, it would be 
necessary to have as many people as head of cattle to 
keep them together. The station was stocked with 

F 2 


numerous ducks, fowls, pigeons, j}arrots, and guinea- 
fowls ; nor do I douljt that every other kind of poultry 
would thrive here. For convenience' sake we had given 
over a considerable breed of pigs to one of the neigh- 
bouring chiefs. 

Our little dogs had suffered most ; of the fifteen 
imported, chiefly terriers and one fox terrier, only five 
were alive. Some had been hunting in the long grass 
or in the heat, or had fallen victims to snake-bite ; 
two had l)een killed by leopards, one of the latter 
having jumped over the palisades of the station. 
Strangely enough, only the male dogs had succumbed 
to diseases, while we had lost the females by accidents. 
The survivors — one of which had been I'escued from 
the claws of the leopard, though with se^-eral wounds ; 
another, wdth a broken leg, had escaped from the clutches 
of a wounded wild boar — had repeatedly mingled with 
native dogs, and the result of this breed was regarded 
as a very valuable present by the chiefs in all Lubuku. 

The meteorological observations, I am sorry to say, 
w^ere, through the wrong setting of some instruments, not 
so complete as might be desired. The most surprising 
result of these observations, and one which accounts for 
the luxuriance of growth in the countries of Central 
Africa, was, that there was not one month of the year 
without rain. This is especially striking in the three 
mouths, June, July, and August. There had been rain 
three times in June, twice in July, and frequently in 
August ; thouo-h of course, in the two first-named 
months, this was not sufiicient to keep the plants from 
scorching during the intense heat : there was a heavy 
dew at the time which made up for it. In this way it is 


possible to reap maize tliree times, in some parts even 
four times, millet tAvice or thrice, and rice twice. 

After one day of rest we set out on a visit to Kalamba. 
At the entrance of the village thousands of people were 
assembled and posted on each side of the road, and 
everywhere I was greeted with ' Moiio Kabassu Babu ! ' 
On both sides of the ' Kiota,' the market and meeting- 
place, the men were sitting in long rows ; the hemp- 
pipe was solemnly passing round amidst boisterous 
couofhino- and the deafenino" noise of the whistles and 
big drums. Twenty of my newly recruited soldiers 
fired three salutes, wdiicli were greeted with vigorous 
shooting by the surrounding natives. Then the dense 
crowd of about 5,000 people opened, and amidst cheering 
and clapping of hands old Kalamba, towering above 
the multitude, approached with his sister Sangula. I 
need not be ashamed of my deep emotion on greeting 
with a hearty shake of the hand those tried friends, to 
whom I owed so much. Endless inquiries w^ere made, 
and the cheering all round was literally deafening. I 
jumped on my saddle in order to be better seen, and on 
ni}^ repeatedly crjdng ' Bantue ' with the utmost exertion 
of my voice, so as to enforce silence, I soon stopped ilie 
noise. I then gave a ' Moiio,' telling them that the sea 
had restored my health, and that, led by a strong impulse, 
I had now returned to my friends. Kalamba in reply said 
how delighted he was to see his Kabassu Babu back once 
more. His far-sounding ' To wola ' ( ' I have spoken ' ) 
was followed by firing of guns, beating of drums, and 
cheering. After having thus celebrated the day, they got 
ready for a grand dance. Accompanied by Kalamba, 
his sister Sangula, and Kalamba-Moana, the successor 


to the throne, I entered the chief's neat and pretty 
house, which liad been erected during my absence. I 
talked over with Kalamba all I purposed doing at 
present, and he readily promised that, wherever I 
desired to go, he would send his sons (subjects) with 
me, even if he, being an old man, should be prevented 
from undertaking long journeys. 

Before riding back to the station I met Katende, the 
chief of the Bashi Lamboa, whom a vear ao-o I had 
defeated and taken prisoner, together with Kalamba. 
He had come to pay tribute to the latter, and was com- 
plaining of the extortionate demand. After a short in- 
terview with Kalamba I arranged about the remaining 
amount, and got leave for him to return home. Ee- 
freshed by a cup of millet beer, I started on my home- 
ward journey before dark with some fattened sheep, and 
a goat born with three legs — all presents of Kalamba's. 

On May 5 I started on a visit to the merchant 
Saturnino, who was at the time living with Kapussu 
Jimbundu, north of the Lulua, to buy provisions for 
the station, and thence to march to Luebo station. 
Wolf was to o'o from there straioht to Luluaburj? and 
make preparations, as I proposed going with him in the 
well-tested iron boat ' Paul Pogge ' to explore the Cassai 
above the mouth of the Lulua. I crossed the Lulua close 
to the station where, as on the Muieau, a permanent 
patrol was stationed who only cultivated rice and sugar 
for the station, the soil being exactly suitable for these 
products. I passed many large villages as in a triumphal 
procession, and spent the night at the village of Kapussu, 
a chief who was a half-blood albino. His skin was 


copper-coloured, though his hair was not hght as is the 
case with the real albinos, while his hazel eyes shunned 
the light as theirs do. Xext day I got on the wrong track, 
and lost my way so completely that, until evening, I 
marched across the fields. Only those who know the wild 
growth of those countries, with the long stretches of 
primasval forests bordering each of the frequent water- 
courses, can have an idea of the fatiguing toil of such a 
march. It was night when we reached a small village, 
whose occupants conducted us next day to the Moansan- 
gomma. This river I crossed on a float made of the ribs 
of the Raphia vinifera^ sometimes ten metres in length, 
and soon after reached the camp occupied by Saturnine 
and his assistant Carvalho. In a short time I had con- 
cluded the disagreeable negotiations with the two gentle- 
men, who wanted to profit by my situation as much as 
possible, and started on the 7th after a day's delay in 
order to meet Wolf on the Luebo. For several days I 
marched along the same road that Wolf had travelled 
when I had sent him to the Bakuba Prince Luquengo. 
The Bashilange of these parts, with whom we had 
scarcely come in contact, were mostly Chipulumba — that 
is, people who refused to smoke hemp or to reform 
their wild martial habits. I also repeatedly met trading 
Bakuba, who wanted to buy slaves and salt. 

When I wished to cross the Lulua at the Bena- 
Mbala's, and therefore called across to the island where 
the people lived who were to ferry me over, they, Chipu- 
lumba to the backbone, would not let me pass. Threats 
and promises were of no avail, and I was forced to re- 
ascend the slope, difiicult as it was for the bull to pass, 



and try to cross the river farther up. Scarcely had I left 
the shore Avhen I heard the report of a gun, and found 
that one of the five soldiers who had accompanied me 


had fired a shot amongst the insulting Chipulumba, 
which gained him my serious disapproval. 

On the 9tli I crossed the river from the Baqua-Kash 
country, at a place where a small tributary, the Chirilu, 


rushes as a waterfall of six metres height into the Luliia. 
In the middle of the stream my bull, whose head was 
held by a man at the stern, came pushing against the 
canoe so that it was not possible to steer. The bull 
succeeded in putting one foot over the edge of the canoe 
and made it capsize. As the two negroes who were 
with me could swim, we gained the shore, swimming some 
distance behind the bull. I did not much relish such 
swimming expeditions, since in the same Lulua, at a 
place where I used to bathe every day, a negro had 
been seized by a crocodile five years before. This time 
it seemed more risky than ever, as, just before, we 
had observed several of these terrible reptiles. I may 
mention here that the crocodile seems to assume its 
exterior from its surroundings, which by Darwin has 
been called ' mimicry.' On light sands I used to see 
animals of a yellowish green, while on dark and boggy 
ground they looked dark brown, and even crocodiles 
lying on stones resemble the colour of their resting-2)lace. 

I followed the Lulua downward, and, in order to get 
to know the way, I always kept close to the river side, 
though this obliged me to pass through uninterrupted 
primaeval forests. These forests are inhabited by Ba- 
shilange, who are short and thin, and remind one of 
the dwarf-like Batua. As is mostly the case with the 
inhabitants of primeval forests, they are marked by 
shyness and reserve. 

At eleven o'clock in the evening, in complete dark- 
ness, I traversed the last forest and reached Luebo 
station, where I found Wolf. Next day preparations 
for the journey had to be made, sentences passed, and 


punishments inflicted. One of our soldiers, known 
throughout the country by their becoming uniform, had 
been avaihnor himself of our influence to make extortions. 
It appeared that our people, when sent on messages, had 
been carrying off* goats, fowls, nay, even slaves, which 
the}^ had possessed themselves of either by threats or by 
force. As nothing would be more likely to injure our 
influence than such proceedings, I adopted the severest 
punishments. I despatched some natives with a hippo- 
potamus whip, who were to carry out the punishment, 
a sound thrashing, and to impart the reason for it to the 
offended chiefs, who were to receive an indemnification 
for their loss, which was to be deducted from the 
offenders' pay. 

After giving Mr, Bateman instructions in case the 
' Stanlev ' should arrive durino- our absence, or our 
return should be delayed longer than expected, we went 
on board the iron boat ' Paul Pogge,' fitted out for a 
month's journey, and took with us six Zanzibaris, three 
Angola negroes, and one native, with whom we sailed 
down the Lulua. On the mornim? of the 14th, after 
an undisturbed nioht on sandbanks, we ao-ain found 
ourselves on the slowly flowing Lulua, whose mouth we 
reached by noon. \¥e then sailed up the Cassai, 1,000 
metres wide, intersected by islands and sandbanks, on 
one of which we encamped. While our men were pitch- 
ing the tent, I found a large nest of eggs resembling 
those of a plover, which, not being hatched, improved 
our meal. Wolf, who had gone ashore in a boat to fetch 
wood, also tried to get provisions, and fired at a flock 
of geese, but, missing them, he might have laid us low 


instead of the geese, as tlie grains of shot were buzzing 
about our ears. 

On the 15th we proceeded up stream. The banks 
were high, and covered with primasval forests ; in the 
background we noticed closely wooded mountains, up 
to a height of 100 metres. We had been informed by 
PofTcfe that between the Lulua and the Cassai we should 
for days see nothing but huge forests. The Cassai was 
in the middle distinctly divided by a long row of sands. 
On one of those stretches, about 2,000 metres long, we 
found a deserted dog howling most piteously ; he had 
evidently been left behind b}' a native who had fled from 
us. On our approaching and attemj)ting to rescue him, 
lie fled and suddenly |)lunged into the water, but had 
floated sp far down that we did not notice whether lie 
reached the shore or not. 

The banks appeared to be uninhabited, as throughout 
the day we saw no canoe, no human beings, no fish- 
hooks, nor a road leading to the river ; nothing but 
traces of buflliloes and elephants. 

A most tormentinj? nuisance were some small stino'less 
bees, that came with such persistency into our eyes, ears, 
and nostrils as to keep us in incessant conflict with 
them. It was literally impossible to eat, as they settled 
in such numbers on each morsel which we were about to 
put into our mouths, that we had soon to give up the 

On the left bank we noticed, on the morning of the 
Ifith, four large canoes — those beautifully slender vessels 
of the Lower Cassai which at first sight show they 
were meant for longer expeditions than simply to cross 





the river. We made a land- 
ing-place, from which we found 
three branching roads, on two 
of wliich we sent patrols with 
goods, and injunctions to ap- 
proach the natives cautiously 
and try to buy provisions. 
They soon returned, accom- 
panied by relatives of the 
tribe of the Bashi-Bombo, bringing manioc flour, fowls, 
and palm-wine. The Bombo — Bashi means the same 
as Baqua, Bena, and Ba, i.e. people — with their mus- 
cular, heavy bodies, the tattooed cuts on their sto- 
machs and backs, resembled the Bakuba of the opposite 

On continuing our journey, one of our Zanzibaris 
turned out to have disappeared. He had been enjoying 
too much palm-wine and had fallen asleep in the forest. 
I had just got ready with five men to search for him, 


when lie came reeling along, but was soon sobered by a 
well-deserved thrasliino-. 

The river widened up to 200 metres, and was on 
each side mantled with primasval forests, without any 
signs of human beings, besides a good many sands, and 
not till evening did we come upon a thickly wooded 
island. No pastures being near, we did not see any 
hippopotami. The only living creatures were hosts of 
parrots, small herds of monkeys, and a night-heron scared 
from out of the shade of the trees. The Bashi-Bombo had 
told us that we should soon make a large f^ill, above 
which there would be the mouth of a river, most likely 
of the Luvo. 

On the 17th we saw oil-palm groves ever and anon 
on the slopes of the high banks, now and then canoes, 
and towards evening rubble-stones in the bends of 
the river ; an unmistakable sign that we were nearinp- 
difficulties as regards the navigation of the river. In 
the evening, just before encamping, we halted near a 
gigantic rock towering in the middle of the stream 
like a huge sugar loaf. Our attempts to cut some 
mark into it were thwarted by the brittleness of the 
granite. On the surface of it there was the sign of a 
cross, formed by two veins of quartz projecting from 
the rock. 

We then pitched our camp in a place trodden down 
by hippopotami and elephants, in a prettily-shaded bay, 
from which a brook was rushing down in small cascades. 

We refreshed ourselves with a sweet caoutchouc 
liana, the size of a large ball, and then began to prepare 
our meal. 


On the morning of the 18th, after rounding a bend, 
we suddenly saw before us a bar of rock stretching 
across the whole breadth of the river. It was so low 
that the water overleaped it or forced its way through 
gaps. Close below the right bank we succeeded in in- 
citing our six rowers to the utmost exertion in pressing 
through a channel. After rounding the next bend of 
the river a strange picture presented itself to our eyes, 
for which we had been prepared for the last twenty 
minutes b}' a loudly roaring sound. The whole of the 
huge river was rushing down eight metres deep into a 
kind of wide-spreading lake. 

The wall of rocks that forced the river to take such 
a leap was crowned by four islands luxuriantly covered 
with palms and pandanus, and dividing it into five 
channels and five waterfalls. The one on the right side, 
the father, as it were, was the largest, about sixty 
metres broad ; while the others, the four children, 
measured from ten to fifteen metres.^ 

This clear bright lake, surrounded by banks of dark 
forests, the foarainf]^ wall of roarincf falls towerino; in 
the background, together with islands rich in growth — 
all this formed a very striking picture. 

This, then, was the boundary of communication by 
water : a channel system extending over many thousands 
of sea miles, crossing Equatorial Africa from here to 
the Falls of Father Congo below Stanley Pool ; up the 
Congo to below Stanley Falls ; on the Sankurru and 

^ The two waterfalls of the Cassai — about two days' journey farther 
up — which I discovered in 1884 and called Pog^e Falls, are Mbimbi- 
Mukash and Mbimbi-Mulume — i.e. Mbimbi, fall', Mukash, tvonian; 
Mulume, mari. 


Lomami in due easterly direction close to Nyangwe ; 
from the Congo to the Mubangi and Welle of Schwein- 
furth and Junker, and on the numerous little tribu- 

We sailed up the right bank, as I wished to take 
the boat across the fall in order to go up to Kikassa and 
Pogge Fall, if possible, and thus to form a connection 
between my former and my present travels. Arrived 
at the top, however, we noticed some more rapids and 
small cascades above the fall, and I therefore o-ave 
up my plan. Wolf and I cut two large W's into the 
huge stem of a gigantic tree of the prima3val forest that 
grew off the fall close to the shore, which will easily 
catch the traveller's eye. The neighbourhood of the 
fall was enveloped in a cloud of foam, and everything 
was shiny, damp, and covered with moss. 

We now crossed over to the left bank, where we 
kept in smooth water to close below the fall. A great 
many remnants of smashed canoes were buried amono- 
the sands in the shallow water. The shape of these 
canoes was different from those we had seen before, not 
slender and pointed on each side, but with rounded 
stern. The inhabitants above the fall did not, it seems, 
use their canoes for travelling, but simply for crossing- 
the river and for fishing purposes. 

A numl)er of women whom we found engao-ed in 
fishing took flight before us. Contrar}^ to the habit 
of the tribes we had seen before, they had dyed their 
skin with a mixture of oil and red wood. A few 
minutes after, five men armed with their bows and 
arrows were seen approaching us cautiously. We at 


once saw tliey belonged to a new tribe, judging from 
their strange head-dress, painted skin, and figures much 
slighter than those of the people we had seen on the 
Cassai before. We succeeded in banishing the distrust 
of the people, so that they came near us when their 
number had increased to twenty. They called them- 
selves Tupende, and belonged to the same tribe in whose 
territory I had crossed the Cassai twice before. They 
pretended not to know an3'thing of the mouth of the 
Luvo, which I supposed to be near ; and they appeared 
to be greatly astonished at my being acquainted with 
the state of affairs up the stream, when talking of the 
Chikapa and of Kikassa. They spoke of Pogge Falls, and 
said that above the fall where our camp was pitched the 
river was impassable for a long distance. They sold us 
palm-wine and fish, and then we re-embarked and made 
the ' Pogge ' carry us down the river. Before parting 
with the beautiful sight of the falls, I accepted \yolf's 
proposal to give them the name of ' Wissmann Fall.' 
These two successive cataracts, formed by the largest 
tributary of the Congo, are an emblem, as it were, of 
\\\j working together with my late friend, the highly 
respected traveller, Paul Pogge. 

Some kilometres down the stream we were enticed 
to land by a sort of crashing sound in the wood. Un- 
definable short and grunting sounds keep even the 
connoisseur of African game in doubt as to whether 
the animals breaking through the thicket in a boggy 
place are elephants, buffdoes, or boars. These three 
inhabitants of the primeval forest have voices of great 
similarity. We crept along, and I succeeded in killing 



by a single shot a boar which was covering the re- 
treat of a whole herd ; this was very welcome to us, 
since we had been in want of meat for several days. 
Even our Zanzibaris, who always pretended to be strict 


Mahometans, were by no means averse to eating the 
prohibited meat. They thought that, when travelling, 
such transgressions might be permitted. 

The nocturnal repose of our camp was interrupted 
by the tremendous noise of a falling tree. This is pre- 



ceded by a repeated crashing sound, resembling that 
of a badly fired salute : the falling giant either tears 
the lianas that hold him up, or breaks through the sur- 
rounding lower trees. Then follows a heavy groan- 
incf fall, makincf the o-pound all round about vibrate ; 
the huge trunk has broken down, its strong branches 

Havino- heard that there was an abundance of o-ame 
in the neighbourhood, we went on a shooting expedition ; 
but we were only able to ascertain that the district 
abounded in elephants. 

In the evening of the 19 th we pitched our camp 
close to the mouth of the Lulua, and next morning 
sailed up this river. 

Some fishermen told us that, an hour before, the same 
iron canoe that had taken back the Baluba had sailed 
up the stream. The news greatly vexed us, for this 
hour's loss of time compelled us to sail all the way to 
the station against the current ; while in this boat, 
evident^ the ' Stanley,' we might have easily reached 
the Luebo the same day, if only a dense fog had not 
prevented our seeing the steamer. Our journey from 
the mouth of the Lulua up to Wissmann Fall had taken 
us twent3-two and a half hours' fatiguing rowing, and 
the down journey only eight hours. We estimated the 
distance at about fifty-eight sea miles. 

Wolf was suffering from very painful ulcers, hence 
the narrow and uncomfortable seats in the boat made 
him exceedingly tired. The lancing of them, which 
I did by making a cruciform incision with a sharp 
pocket-knife, was naturally most painful. 


The current of the Lulua had unfortunately greatly 
increased, and so we did not reach the station till the 
22nd. The ' Stanley ' was moored alongside of the bank, 
and the station was swarming with Europeans. Among 
those who had arrived were Captain De Macar and 
Lieutenant Le Marinel, two officers sent from the Consfo 
State to take charge of Luluaburg station ; a Swedish 
Professor (Von Schwerin) ; Mr, Anderson, the captain 
of the ' Stanley,' also a Swede ; his mate, De Latte, a 
Frenchman ; the engineer, a Scotchman of the name of 
Walker : and Herr Stehlmann, from Luxemburof. 

The ' Stanley 'had brought my goods, which enabled 
me to return to Mr. Saturnino some of the articles that I 
had bought at much too high a price. The assistant of 
Saturnino, Mr. Carvalho, had settled near Luebo station, 
and was engaged in building canoes in order to sail 
clown the Cassai with Saturnino and the remainder of 
his goods, and also, encouraged by our statements, to 
buy ivory on the way. 

As the ' Stanley ' was only staying for a few days, 
and would then take Wolf down to the coast, I charged 
him to prepare an account of our last journeys, since, 
as I was on the point of going towards the East, this 
would perhaps for some years be my last opportunity for 
communication with Europe. 

Wolf's furlough had nearly expired, and, although 
his strong constitution had successfully resisted the 
influence of malaria, he had been suffering much lately 
from nervous headaches, toothache, and continual ulcers, 
for which reason a change would be of o-reat benefit 
to him. 

a 2 


Since Wolf knew that Germany was on the point of 
taking her place among the colonial powers, he pro- 
posed to remain in Germany only for the time that he 
needed for the arrangement of our mutual work, and 
then to place his experience ' in Africanis ' at the dis- 
posal of his country. How he eventually carried out 
his plan is well known. 

On May 28 the day of separation had come, and in 
parting I pressed the hand of my friend, the partner of 
so many dangers and fatigues. I felt almost deserted 
when I saw the ' Stanley ' turn the last wooded corner. 
Wolf was the last of my officers with whom I had three 
years ago set foot on this continent. 

My next care was to take my goods and the articles 
belonging to the gentlemen under my command to 
Luluaburg. I therefore sent messengers to Kalamba 
to ask for 200 men for this purpose. Kalamba sent the 
peo]3le as soon as possible, so that on June 6 the loads, 
accompanied by the officers, were able to follow. We 
had only to walk through the girdle of the primaeval 
forest, then we met the bulls sent by Bugslag, whose 
efficiency I had formerly had occasion to test — an effi- 
ciency which greatly satisfied and surprised the Belgians. 

I received a very tedious wound in my right hand 
when teaching my bull to leap. A deep, narrow chasm 
which I could not leap, the animal not being broken in, 
induced me to drive him before me by a rope to 
which a carbine hook was fastened. As the bull 
refused to leap, I urged him on, but I was careless 
enough not to let go my hold of the rope when he 
leapt. The carbine hook opened in my hand and 


inflicted a deep wound. Fortunately, the sharp end of 
the hook did not touch a nerve. 

The patrol on the Muieau reported that the neigh- 
bouring chief Kassange had lately ill-treated one of my 
soldiers when at his village on a commission of Bugslag's. 
I despatched ,three men to the village to fetch the chief, 
who at first refused to come, but was afterwards brought 
to me in fetters. I sentenced Kassange to the payment of 
a strong beautiful bull, which he had lately bought from 
a Kioque caravan, and which, together with those that 
Kalamba gave us later, completed the number necessary 
for my journey. 

At Luluaburg, which we reached in the evening, Bug- 
slag was awaiting us with a grand meal in the verandah. 
Eoast ducks, pickled pork, cucumber salad, and other 
dainties rare in Central Africa, greatly astonished our 
new comrades. 

During my last stay at Luluaburg a Balungu cara- 
van had arrived from the well-known chief Kassongo 
Chiniama, who lived north of the Muata-Jamwo of 
Lunda. The Balungu knew of a white man who, coming 
from the north, had years ago passed near their village. 
This could have been no other than Lieutenant 

My prospect for the future depended upon the 
arrival of my old interpreter, Germano, whom, before 
starting to explore the Cassai, I had sent to the coast to 
buy provisions at Malange for the remaining balance of 
my credit. Unless something had happened, he ought 
to have been back long ago. Wliat provisions the 
* Stanley' had brought from the Congo would just 


suffice to keep the station for six months, probably until 
communication with the Congo should be opened again. 
No tidings having arrived from Germano, whom I had 
directed to send messengers on before to report his 
starting from Malange, I presumed that months would 
elapse before his return. I therefore resolved to visit 
Kassongo Chiniama in the Balungu country, to get 
certain information about the upper river system of the 
Lubilash Sankurru, of which the most contradictory 
statements existed. At the same time I wanted to find 
out the tribes between the Bashilange and the Lunda. 

Immediately after the arrival of Germano I pro- 
posed to leave Luluaburg and, according to orders, go 
towards the east to explore the upper course of the 
Lualaba. Meanwhile, I intended to initiate the two 
Belgian officers into the affairs of the country, so as to 
give Luluaburg and Luebo station definitely into their 
charge. I hoped to have, by that time, so arranged 
political affairs that the new commanders w^ould in 
future only have to negotiate with Kalamba, the upper 
chief dependent on them. 

In Lubuku, the country of the hemp-smoking 
Bashilange, my tactics had always been to keep the 
natives separated into two parties, so as in case of need 
to lead one against the other. I had made Kalamba and 
Chingenge chiefs of the two parties. Experience had 
taught me that these tactics, which always made the 
management of the natives difficult, were necessary no 
longer. This had been made evident to me during 
the two long journeys with the chief of the Lubuku 
Bashilange, so that I resolved upon a single control of 


the natives. There could naturally be no doubt as to 
who was to be the chief dependent on me or my 
successor. Kalamba was the mightiest, the most re- 
spected, and, above all, the most devoted of all the 
princes of Lubuku. His sister, Sangula Meta, the high- 
priestess of the Eiamba worship, who had great influence 
over her brother, was even more devoted to me and 
to us all than he was. Both brother and sister had 
given so many proofs of their trustworthiness and affec- 
tion — virtues so rarely found among negroes — that I 
could not but banish all scruples about Kalamba's faith- 
fulness. Added to this, Kalamba's eldest son, his suc- 
cessor, Kalamba Moana, who was much more intelligent 
than his father, seemed to be equally trustworth}'. 
During his father's absence he had in every respect 
behaved in a most praiseworthy manner to Bugslag. 

As I considered Luluaburo- and its surroundino- 
Bashilange as the centre whence the Congo State should 
undertake the further exploration and civilisation of its 
southern countries, and as the easiest and cheapest way 
to this object was to have one agent only — to superintend 
and direct from one station — I now began, in the imme- 
diate circuit of the station, in the friendly country — i.e. 
Lubuku — to make the greater chiefs, the eldest members 
of a family called Baqua or Bena, responsible masters of 
the districts allotted to them, so that the numerous 
would-be independent seniors of the villages might 
easily be managed. So I made the chiefs of the Baqua 
Chirimba, Baqua Kambulu, Bena Kussu, Bena Chitari, 
&c. — to each of which belonged from five to fifteen 
villao'es — real masters of their district. I intended 


to extend my authority over fifty of such faniihes. Each 
of the chiefs was to have a star flai?, and all these flasfs 
were to be placed under the large union flag of 
Kalamba's. The latter, to whom a certain, not too 
large, tribute [mulambo) was to be paid by the chiefs 
only, was to engage himself always to supply warriors 
for any chance campaign, conductors for a journey, 
labourers for keeping the roads clear, &c. He was to 
provide sufficient means for passing to and fro on the 
river crossings, to induce the population to grow rice, and 
to carry out different other projects to which I shall 
refer later. 

In order to inform the fifty family chiefs, as I am 
now going to call them, a number of patrols set out, with 
the intention of branching off" in all directions. Escorting 
each was one of my veterans from the coast, accompanied 
by four or five of the more important of Kalamba's 
warriors. The chiefs were summoned to the station, and, 
in African fashion, they were to bring presents according 
to the wealth of their tribe, whilst at Luluaburg they 
were to receive flags and a proper chieftain's suit. One 
may imagine what excitement this message caused 
among the active and talkative Bashilange. 

Two days after the departure of the patrol the 
summoned chiefs appeared, mostly witJiout grand 
suites. One brought four sheep or goats, another a 
small elephant's tusk, a third a small boar, that with 
the greatest difficulty was led by twelve men, &c. 
Each of them had scruples that were to be removed, 
petitions, if possible, to be listened to, grievances about 
under-chiefs to be redressed, and, finally, requests of 


various kinds. Each one returned proudly with un- 
furled star flag (the new ensign of the Congo State), 
dressed in glaring garments, quite ready to be a staff in 
the alliance of lictors that Kalamba was now to com- 
mand as a life-guardsman of the new state. 

Only three chiefs refused to come, and they were 
written on the blackboard, in order to be forced into 
submission as soon as time permitted : this had to be 
done, for the sake of example. 

During this time the station was like a beehive. 
Troops of natives came and went uninterruptedly ; 
messengers were despatched with threats or promises ; 
the chiefs gloried in appearing with as many village 
seniors as possible. Whenever any irregularities hap- 
pened near the station I went myself to the places in 
question, as, for instance, when I went to Kongolo Mosh, 
who owned large villages north of the station beyond 
the Lulua. 

This indolent chief, a most inveterate hemjD-smoker, 
possessed no authority over his village seniors, and 
difficulties had arisen in the station when it was neces- 
sary to procure labourers or carriers ; in consequence, 
I had ordered all the seniors of the villao-es belono^inof 
to Kongolo to come to the chief place, had listened to 
their complaints, and then compelled them to make the 
sign of submission to their upper chief, which is to rub 
their heads and chests with sand, and, as a mark of 
pardon and peace, to give him Pemba, a ceremony in 
which the elder (called father in African) has to make 
a white mark with chalk on the forehead and chest of 
the younger (son). 


One single old Cliipulumba, who would not hear' of 
any peaceful proceedings on the part of the younger 
generation, firmly refused to submit, and I had no choice 
but to make him prisoner and take him back to the 
station. I declared w^ar at once ao-ainst one of the chiefs 
who would not obey the summons to Luluaburg, as he 
could be reached in a daj-'s march. This sufficed ; he 
first sent ten goats as a present, and then came himself. 
Other subjects of one of the greatest princes, Chilunga 
Messo, were brought captive to the station, and kept 
confined till they submitted. These days, so exciting 
for Lubuku, made it evident to us how ambitious were 
these Bashilange, and how jealously they demanded the 
respect due to them. 

The reader will be astonished to learn with what 
forces we undertook the subjugation of a people number- 
ing man}' thousands. The strength of my troops at 
Luluaburg was from twenty to thirty men. They were 
mostly inhabitants of the coast, and almost exclusively 
men who had accompanied me on long journeys — the 
most distinguished of the many hundreds of carriers 
in my service. The soldiers wore a red fez, a white 
blouse, a white band round their hips, a sword, a belt 
with a cartridge-box, and a carbine. By summoning 
about sixty coasters living with the natives round the 
station, especially people of the warlike tribe of the 
Ginga, I was able to raise the troops to nearly 100, 
and should have had, of course, part of the natives on 
my side. My greatest help was nevertheless the trust 
which the Bashilange placed in me after a four years* 
acquaintance, a trust that will seem extraordinary even 


to those best acquainted with the negro, and which can 
be accounted for only by the unusual intelligence of 
the Bashilange. I am not now entering upon a close 
examination of this advantage, as I have already done 
this in my former works. 

On June 21 Kalamba arrived at the station with his 
sister, his son, all his grandees, and a suite of about 
500 warriors. He brought a present of fourteen sheep, 
and resigned to me some people who were guilty of 
crimes and offences, whose punishment he thought 
I should claim as m}^ right. I sent the criminals 
in fetters to the Luebo to work, but asked Kalamba to 
punish the offences himself, after explaining to him the 
way in which white men deal with transgressions. 

I made an ao-reement with Kalamba that I should 
give the chiefs of Lubuku time to arrange matters within 
their sphere, while I would visit Kassongo Chiniama on 
the Lubilash ; and that at a great meeting I should 
place all the chiefs under his command ; and that if 
Germano, as I hoped, should have arrived meanwhile, 
I should set out for my long journey. Some days before, 
a letter had come from Germano, through some Kioques, 
in which he reported that on the way to the coast he had 
lost thirty men, a third of his caravan, from small-pox, 
which had made him prolong his journey to four months. 
From fear of small-pox, wdiich was known to rage in 
the interior, on the way to the Lulua, few carriers were 
to be had at Angola, and he would not be able to start 
before May. So I could not expect him till August. 

Kalamba Moana was to accompany me on my 
journey to the Balungu ; and while he was making pre- 



parations and collecting followers, my officers and I pre- 
pared ourselves for our future business at the now quiet 
station. Captain De Macar, who was to accompany 
me to the Balungu, was to take charge of the station 


later on, after my final departure ; while Le Marinel 
was to go with me on the long journey to the East, 
whither I was taking the Bashilange, in order that he 
might eventually take them back to their country. 


The two gentlemen were engaged in preparing for their 
future duties ; they studied languages and made meteoro- 
logical observations at the station, which I had taken 
pains to make possible again by repairing several instru- 

Besides the usual work at the station, we were 
much engaged in the building of bridges, which pre- 
sented many difficulties on account of the frequently 
swollen water-courses. We could soon pass every 
stream in the course of a day's journey on bridges, and 
even when in the saddle ; only on the Lulua was in- 
tercourse carried on in a number of larg-e canoes. 
In building a bridge we made use of palm-stems as 
stretchers, as they were so long and firm, and could 
easily be cut near the rivers. 

One day I came upon some labourers who were in the 
act of cutting the top off a felled palm-tree. I wanted 
to teach one of them, who showed himself clumsy in 
handling his axe, how to use it, by taking it myself 
and striking several blows. At the third blow the 
bystanders uttered a cry of warning, and at the same 
moment two large dark snakes came darting out of the 
top of the tree, but fortunately rushed past me into 
the thicket. I had, it appeared, cut off the extreme 
end of the tail of one, and part of the back of the 
other, to which may be ascribed the lucky cirumstance 
that the reptiles did not bite me. As far as I could 
make out, they were spectacle-snakes (Haja-Haje). 
These and the puff" adder are doubtless the most 
venomous and dangerous of all African snakes. 




Collecting the escort for the journey — A good shot — A terrier trying to 
attack a hippopotaraus — Plundering by my men — ^olian bells — The 
savage Balimgu — Put on the wrong track — The Kanjoka — Dancing 
women — Boundary of the piu'e Baluba — Threats — Dense population — 
On the Bushi Maji — Insolence of the natives — War — Effect of the 
report of a gun— Treacherous Baluba — Falsehoods of the Balungu — 
Eesultless negotiations — Warlike expedition to punish our insolent 
enemies — A hundred prisoners and a large booty — Want of ammuni- 
tion—My resolve to return — The inhospitable Baluba country — A 
dangerous retreat — Fair — Bad state of health — At Luluaburg — Con- 
flacfration — Le Marinel's dangerous illness. 

On June 26 I marclied from our village with Captain 
De Macar, twenty coasters, and fifteen Basliilange, in 
order to pick up natives, who were to accompany us to 
the Balungu at Kalamba's and farther on the road. 
The first day we stayed with Kalamba, where w^e were 
joined by Kalamba Moana, with about 100 men. The 
notorious Kioque chief, Mona Ngana Mukanjanga, who 
before Pogge's and my coming had brought the first 
firearms to Lubuku, had arrived with a caravan. After 
our first journey this chief had justly apprehended that 
we should lessen his influence, and had accordingly 
sworn hostility to us. He had repeatedly tried to in- 
fluence Kalamba a2;ainst us, and threatened to drive 



us back with Kioques as plentiful as ' grass ' in the savan- 
nah. Now Kalamba told me smilingly that the great 
Mukanjanga had, for fear of me, lied to the primseval 

In our march we stopped at every village, to pick up 
five men at one, ten or more at another, and so on. Our 


reception was a pacific one throughout, and we had so 
many presents given us at every place that we were 
able to live in princely style. Chingenge, twenty-five of 
whose warriors joined us, brought four sheep, a goat, a 
pig, a duck, a parrot, pine-apples, bananas, tomatoes, 
onions, and millet beer. He, being my oldest friend, was 
ready as usual ; in man}^ res|)ects he would have been 



more qualified to be 
the upper chief of Lu- 
buku, but his election 
might have been ob- 
jected to by too many 
chiefs ; for, being more 
energetic than Kalam- 
ba, he had had many 
disputes and many a 
fight with most of the 
grandees of Lubuku. For this reason, therefore, much 
as I regretted it, he had to subject himself to Kalamba. 
I, however, purposely ranked him as Kalamba's first 

From this point I turned to the south to visit Prince 
Katende, of the Bashilamboa. Here also we were most 
kindly welcomed : they had forgotten that a year before, 



in a war with tlie Basliilamboa, I had been obhged to 
iDurn their villages. The Bashilamboa, who with their 
chief Katende had refused to acknowledge Kalamba as 
their superior, had gone to the Lulua and had settled 
in obscure Chipulumba villages. I was made aware of 
their obstinacy the evening after my arrival at Katende's. 
I had gone down to the river with De Macar to hunt 
hippopotami, when I met a canoe, which I hailed and 
requested its occupants to take me to an island from 
whence the hunt would be facilitated. They, however, 
whom Katende's men called Chipulumba, refused to oblige 
me, and rowed to the opposite shore, from whence they 
mocked me with the name of Toka-Toka,^ requesting me 
to come over to them to fetch the canoe, or to show them 
how far my fire-arms would carry. In compliance with 
this request, I aimed at the bow of the canoe, which they 
had tied to a tree, and my shot cut the palm rope by which 
it was fastened, so that, caught by the current, it floated 
downward. Believing that I had intended this result, 
they fled, amazed at the sure aim of my weapon. At this 
place the Lulua was 200 metres broad. I then visited 
the magnificent Lulumba Fall, which Pogge had dis- 
covered four years before and had erroneously called 
Kangonde Fall. Before crossing the Cassai I had here 
once shot a hippopotamus that, roaring and tossing, had 
approached my canoe. At the time I had one of our 
terriers with me; after the shot the little creature 
jumped overboard and swam to the place where the 
hippopotamus had appeared. The mortally wounded 
monster came twice to the surface ; the last time, the 

' Albino. 




terrier, on the point of at- 
tacking, was so near liim 
that the water, splashed 
by the foot of the hippo- 
potamus, dashed over his 
assailant. The terrier, 
however, did not give 
in, and when his prey was 
no lonofer visible he swam 
round and round, barking 
with excitement; nay, he 
even tried to reach the 
hippopotamus by putting 
his head under water. 

Although European 
dogs easily lose their incli- 
nation to hunt in Equato- 



rial Africa, my experience has taught me that the terrier 
belongs to the race that can best resist the climate. 
There is no game that a good terrier will not attack. 
I am sorry to say that it was just the clauntlessness of 
the little heroes that made us lose them. 

On July 2 we passed the Lulua and pitched our 
camp with the chief of the Bena Lokassu, named 
Chimboa. I had now nearly 200 men, about 150 of 
whom were armed with guns, and so I terminated my 
recruiting business. 

From the extensive, well-cultivated fields intersected 
with broad roads which we saw when on the march, we 
soon found that we were not about to encamp with 
Chipulumbas, but with well-civilised Bashilange, the 
Bena Jionga. We were kindly welcomed, and, as 
everywhere in this country, my people were allowed the 
free use of the fields. Only meat — meaning in Bashilan- 
gish fowls, locusts, dried caterpillars, goats, &c. — had 
to be bought. For this reason, therefore, the allowance 
that I gave the people — which for a week, perhaps, did 
not exceed the value of a yard of stuff — sufficed. Tra- 
velling with the Bashilange is very cheap ; they find some- 
thing to eat everywhere, while the coasters would soon 
be at a loss. When they feel strong enough, I must 
own, it is difficult to keep them from taking what they 
find, and, in spite of warning, I had to put some of 
Kalamba Moana's men into chains for havino; stolen 
fowls. I had not taken many provisions with me, nor 
could I give out many ; for, as I had calculated pretty 
nearly what Germano would bring from the coast, I 
had arrived at the conclusion that I should not be able 




to make my long journey to the east. Knowing the 
general circumstances in Inner Africa, I should have 
made what provisions I had or expected to have suffice ; 
but the stay of my expedition at Stanley Pool had made 
a large hole in my resources. Everything was exor- 
bitantly dear there, though I had sold to the Congo 
State the ivory that I bought whilst exploring the 


Cassai, in exchange for provisions ; and though I had 
made my Bashilange work for wages at Leopold ville. 
Added to this, Wolf had been persuaded during my 
absence to pay our coasters higher wages, in order to 
satisfy them, since they had seen that the soldiers on 
the Lower Congo received much higher pay. Though 
I had succeeded in somewhat reducing the wages, yet 
my money difficulties continued. From my first journey 
I had been accustomed simply to give what was most 
necessary, and only when absolutely obliged to do so 


liacl I granted the after-claims of tlie negroes, who were 
always increasing their demands. 

It is very difficult to accustom oneself to African 
thriftiness, especially if one is a new-comer. A young 
European is easily inclined, in order to make the negro 
more peaceably disposed, or to be relieved of long- 
haggling, to allow an increase of salary. The dis- 
advantage of such a proceeding lies not in having to 
increase once, or even more than once ; it lies in the 
negro's becoming aware of how he will gain his end by 
begging, which accomplishment he will make use of in 
a very dexterous way. I was told by Wolf that Lieu- 
tenant Bateman had a knack of easily making friends 
with the natives. My first journey with Dr. Pogge, 
who knew how to travel very economically, was a good 
lesson to me. 

Since we crossed the Lulua we had entered a 
beautifully fertile and picturesque district. Nearly all 
the summits of the hills were covered with groves of 
oil-]3alms, the remains of former villages. On the slopes 
extended rich fields ; the long-stretched ridges between 
numbers of watercourses showed grass savannahs, and 
the banks of the brooks, often thirty metres deep, were 
covered with primeval forests. 

On the 4th we entered the territory of the Bena 
Witanda, covered with numerous villao-es. The Moiio, 
a rivulet of twenty metres breadth and two or three 
metres depth, was crossed on a suspension bridge, which 
in consequence of a very ingenious arrangement was 
quite safe. The houses were gable-shaped, as all the 
Bena Eiamba were compelled to have them. 



At the Bena Witanda we found an ^olian bell, 
wliicli Avas as simple as it was melodious. The bell- 
shaped cup of a dried pumpkin peel was suspended from 
a tall pole bent at the top. Eound about the bell, pieces 
of well-dried grass a span long were fastened to thin 
ends of bast, which, when shaken by the wind, produced 
a melodious noise. These villages were also without 


shade ; in the centre the Kiota, with long-stretched 
piles of firewood, was kept scrupulously clean. Eound 
each house a little garden was laid out, planted with 
wild hemp, tobacco, onions, pumpkins, tomatoes, and 
capsicum, which latter is abundantly used for the dishes 
of the Bashilange. 

The conductors of our Baluii<TU, the messeno-ers sent 
me by Kassongo Chiniama, often gave cause for disputes. 


The Baluno'u were liot-lieaded to such an extent that 
on the shghtest occasion they fell into a towering rage, 
in which state they did not satisfy themselves with words 
only, as do the Bashilange, but at once made energetic 
use of their sticks. Being on an average greatly superior 
to the Bashilange as regards streno-th and dexteritv, the 
consequences of such a dispute were mostly serious 
for the latter. 

I began now to greatly distrust the information 
of our guides. They often contradicted themselves 
about stating distances. At first it was said to be only 
a seven short days' journey from the station to their 
chief. But since crossing the Lulu a, the number of 
days' journeys, though we kept on marching, instead 
of decreasing, daily increased. I often had scruples 
as to whether I had made proper preparations for the 
expedition. The Balungu a^^peased my doubts by 
swearing that Chiniama would surely take it upon 
himself to maintain the caravan for nothing, and also to 
give the men provisions for the return journey. Neither 
would they listen to my scruples about the small quantity 
of ammunition, for, they said, along the road lived only 
* goats,' a term for cowardly, un-martial people. 

It seemed to be pretty certain that after crossing 
the Lubi we should have to pass two larger tribu- 
taries of the Lubilash, before finding on the banks of 
the third the village residence of Kassongo. In the 
Balungu language, river is Lubilashi, Lubilanshi, or 

South of our route the Balungu knew of another 
road, through the Bakete countries. The territory of 


these natives, contemptuously called Tubindi or Tubintsh, 
lay two or four days' journey south of our road ; part 
of the Bakete is said to be called Akauanda and to 
border upon Lunda. 

On the 6 th we reached the district of the Baqua 
Kanjoka, one of the most populous in the Bashilange 
country. Here, to the east of the Bashilange tribe, the 
transition to the pure Baluba shows more distinctly than 
anywhere else. The clever tattooings are seldom seen, 
as is the case with the pure Baluba ; these tattooings 
were here and there replaced by coloured ornaments. 
The appearance of the men was taller and stronger, 
and they were also more clumsy in figure, than the 
almost gracefully-built Bashilange. 

The reader will be astonished to learn that we were re- 
ceived here not only kindly but even submissively, while 
Lieutenant von Francois, who had been sent here more 
than a year before, complained of the savageness of these 
tribes, and often found himself and his followers hard 
pressed by them. Most likely this gentleman, who was 
then a stranger in the country, was mistaken, as many 
others have been : he considered the noisy reception, and 
the boisterous, restlessly wild behaviour of the people as 
a mark of hostility, while, most likely, it was caused only 
by surprise and delight. The people accompanying Von 
Francois, whom I questioned about it, with the view 
of eventually resenting the behaviour of the chiefs, 
were likewise of opinion that the chiefs, in perhaps 
rather a savage manner, had been contending about 
whom the white man was to live with, and that the 
traveller had misinterpreted the means they had used to 


gain their end into hostilities, whereas the carriers had 
never been apprehensive of danger. 

The j)rincipal chief of the Kanjoka — Tenda, or Tenda 
Mata — a man with j^leasant features and a gentle voice, 
who, in consequence of his marked indecision and indo- 
lence, sometimes gave one the impression of his being an 
idiot, but who, in reality, was very cunning, brought 
a small herd of goats in honour of our arrival. I, how- 
ever, gave him a very sharp reproof when he offered 
Kalamba Moana his ' mutullu,' i.e. present, which made 
the Kanjoka, who were screaming with delight, suddenly 
very quiet and subdued. Tenda, expecting that great de- 
mands of tribute would be made upon him, was somewhat 
excited ; but I should have been wrong to calm him, for 
a great chief must request great presents, and conse- 
quently those who do not are not much thought of. 

The Kanjoka country is particularly rich in iron, 
and there are some excellent smiths there. Salt also is 
produced, so that the Kanjoka, with the products of 
their country and their iron manufacture, undertake 
commercial expeditions to the south as far as the Lunda 
country. Within an hour I bought 125 very beautiful 
hatchets, for each of which I exchanged coloured hand- 
kerchiefs. Tenda had, for the last year, sent nearly 
every month hatchets and axes to Luluaburg. 

Kalamba Moana asked me to let him go, with the 
assistance of 100 men, to the chief Kassongo Luaba, who 
was at war, one or two days' journey from here, with the 
Baluba and hard pressed, to which, however, I did not 
consent, as close investigation proved that he was com- 
pletely master of the situation. Kassongo Luaba was the 


most enterprising chief of the Bashilange, and their 
greatest traveller. He was reported to have been far 
beyond Lunda, as far as the lakes, to buy copper (Ban- 
gueolo in the Katanga countrj^). He also knew Muata 
Jamwo, and was said to have seen a white man with 
him, perhaps Dr. Pogge. 

After the settling of the tribute and of the presents 
to be made in return, I ordered a three days' rest, so 
that my men might supply themselves with provisions 
for the districts farther east, which were said to be poor. 
Tenda, at his own request, received permission to accom- 
pany me with twenty men. He also brought me a guide, 
the chief Kasairi Paml^u, who lived two days' journey 

Kasairi was a tall, handsomely -built man of about 
sixty, with grey hair, a heavy moustache, and an im- 
posing carriage and bearing. The chief carried a spear 
eight feet long, and a heavy club a metre in length. A 
bunch of parrot's feathers was fastened in his hair at the 
back, and two skins of civet-cats, held by a belt in front 
and behind, constituted his dress. 

Qn the evening before we set out on our march a long 
row of women approaclied my tent, accompanying their 
monotonous singing with slight movements of the hips. 
Each woman carried a calabash filled with palm wine 
or millet beer, and these they put down before me one 
by one — a goodly array of pumpkin bottles ; then they 
formed a circle round me, and the dancing continued 
until I delighted the fair ones, some of whom belonged 
to Tenda's harem, whilst others were female relatives 
of his, by giving them some beads. The present they 



brought induced me to arrange a party, to which I in- 
vited the whole gentry of the village and of my caravan. 

Next day we passed the last Bashilange, a small 
village of the Bena Kashia, and in crossing the Lukalla, 
which falls into the Lubi, we entered the eastern boun- 
dary of the country of the Baqua Kalosh, a large family 
of the Baluba tribe. The Baluba represent the largest 
tribe of Equatorial Africa. They extend south of the 
Bashilange, who also call themselves Baluba — though 
evidently largely mixed with other tribes — from the 
Cassai to far beyond the Lualaba, and even as far east- 
wards as the Tanganyika. Their northern boundary lies 
about six degrees south latitude. The south of the 
Bangueolo is still inhabited by Baluba. A large part 
of Muata Jamwo's country is occupied by Baluba ; and 
though the Baqua Lunda cannot be called Baluba, they 
are, at any rate, a tribe nearly related to them — perhaps 
a mixture of Baluba and Kaffirs who have immigrated 
from the south. This supposition was caused by ob- 
servations of Pogge's on his journey to Muata Jam wo. 

The villages now ceased ; the Kalosh lived dispersed 
in farms. Their huts were built on a square under- 
■ structure of pounded clay. Strong rods driven in in 
the square were bent together at a height of two or three 
metres, intertwined by parallel-running rods and covered 
with grass. The door, fastened with shutters of bark or 
palm ribs, was so low that one had to bend when entering. 

The difference between two nations is seldom so 
strongly marked as is seen to be the case on crossing the 
Lukalla, the most easterly point reached by Europeans 
(Yon Francois). The Kalosh are a heav}-, muscular, one 



may say a gigantic people ; among them giants of six 
feet in height are frequently found. Their broad, 
strongly developed jaws give the face somewhat the 
appearance of a bull-dog. 

The manners of the Kalosh are noisy and savage, 
their voices, like the Bakuba's, are deep, their gait is 
heavy and ponderous ; the hair is held together in thick 
masses by palm-oil mixed with clay, thus affording a 



good protection against the club, the favourite weapon of 
the Kalosh. I never saw bows, only long s|)ears with iron 
points, of which a warrior mostly carries two or three. 
High shields constructed of willows form a rude j)ro- 
tection. Now and then I saw Lunda knives carried 
in the arm-hole, or small Bashilange knives in their 

The sign of a chief consisted in a short-handled 
hatchet with a very large and broad blade. Instead of 


tattooing they sometimes painted themselves with red^ 
yellow, or white colours. The women anointed their 
whole bodies with oil and red clay, the richer ones with 
oil and pounded red-wood, which they were said to 
buy from the north. 

We halted at one of the largest farms belonging to 
the chief Kashama. This chief, a handsomely-built and 
heavy man, whose thick beard was intertwined with 
small beads, and whose arms were almost covered 
with iron and copper rings, brought me a fat sheep 
as a present. 

On our march next day we were astonished at finding 
a dense population. The country, as far as one could 
see across the prairie, was covered with farms. Hun- 
dreds of people accompanied us screaming, and the 
warriors running alongside the caravan beat the ground 
with their clubs, or exhibited their dexterity in throw- 
ing spears. 

We were stopped by messengers who were sent to 
tell us not to march on before sending presents to the 
neighbouring chiefs ; and that, if we did not conform 
to this custom, we should be delayed by force. I sent 
back word that we did not wish for war, but that we 
should march on as long as it pleased us. I warned 
them to be cautious with their threats lest I should 
lose my temper and lessen the presents. The behaviour 
of the Baluba messengers was such as to require an 
energetic answer, and the Kalosh evidently calculated 
upon intimidating my Bashilange. 

Kasairi Pambu, who next day wanted to introduce 
us into his territory, took great pains to prevent a serious 



encounter, which the be- 
haviour of the natives 
might bring on at any 
moment. He drove 
those back who in- 
solently approached our 
bulls ; nay, several times 
when an uproar arose 
between his tribe and 
my people, in which the 
former at once assumed 
a threatening position, he 
broke the spears of the 


bfienders. As was to be expected, his behaviour, after he 
gained his end and after we were encamped near his 
farm, became just as insolent as that of the surrounding 
crowd, which numbered thousands. In this bare, shade- 
less country, only showing' undulating prairies with few 
trees, everything seemed bent on annoying us, even the 
flies that chose to settle on our eyelids. Kasairi Pambu, 
contrary to African custom, did not bring any present, 
but expected one from me first ; he, however, expected 
in vain. 

The attitude of the natives became more and more 
threatening. One chief accused Mona Tenda, of my 
party, of an old debt, and sent word to me that he 
would not let us go before Tenda had paid it. Kasairi 
came with a large suite in the evening, requesting me to 
stay where I was instead of starting the next day, as was 
my intention ; and he even threatened me with war when 
I curtly refused to do so. I then told him that if he 
dared to threaten me in my camp I should have him 
punished. My Bashilange were rather depressed, but the 
behaviour of my few^ veterans from the coast, who, after 
a few years' experience, always took their cue from me,, 
somewhat raised their courage. In order to prevent any 
misunderstanding I gave a ' moiio ' at dusk, telling them 
that we should start to-morrow. I concluded with scorn- 
ful laughter at the boldness of the Kalosh who dared to 
hinder our starting. The laughter was responded to by 
the caravan, and as a result Kasairi Pambu sent two goats 
and promised to serve us as guide the next day. Our 
departure eventually took place without any disturbance. 

We marched on and on between hundreds of farms. 


through the undulating prairie, whose slopes differed in 
height 100 metres at the utmost. The soil was so bad 
that not even the water's edge was bordered with trees. 

We now entered the district of the Baqua Disho, 
who in no wise differed in their appearance from the 
Kalosh. A large potato field gave us room for our 
camp, and at the same time food for our people. 

South of the Disho lived the Baqua Tembo, likewise 

Another day's march led us for about two hours 
through a savannah of brushwood that was uninhabited. 
Then we descended into a valley that was only prairie, 
and which was populated even more thickly than the 
district we had traversed during the previous days. 
Dense crowds repeatedly tried to delay us, requesting us 
to stay. The three soldiers marching before me halted 
on such occasions, and my quiet bull, regardless of 
the uproar, led the way and made the crowd disperse 
before his broad horns. 

We approached the bottom of the valley, where the 
first of the three tributaries of the Lubilash forced us to 
halt. The Bushi-Maji, or Kishi-Maji, was at this time, 
in the dry season, about 100 metres in width and 1'25 
in depth ; but the canoes we saw showed that a 
great part of the j^ear it was too deep to be waded 
through. I rode through the river, and after calling 
out to De Macar to superintend the further progress, 
I walked up the bank to find out a place suitable 
for the camp. Scarcely had I left the river for ten 
minutes, when the guide of my coast soldiers, the bold 
and cunning Humba, came running to tell me that 


a disturbance liad commenced on tlie crossing, and that 
the natives showed themselves hostile. I hastened back 
to the river, and found the greater part of the caravan, 
mostly men and all the soldiers, on this side, while on 
the opposite side only women and some sick people 
were waiting to cross. On the slope of the bank, in 
an amphitheatre round them, stood many hundreds of 
natives, who, perhaps disgusted that we did not stay in 
their district, were ill-treating my people and trying to 
take part of the loads from them. 

Just at the moment when I reached the river a 
canoe stoj)ped on this side. I jumped in ; my man- 
servant, Sankurru, followed with three of my best men, 
Humba, Simao, and Kataraija. The native guides of 
the canoe in their fright jumped overboard and fled 
down stream ; as they had thrown away the oars, I 
seized a short stick and pushed the canoe towards the 
opposite shore. My stick, however, proved too short 
for the depth of water; we floated down, and were 
jeered at by the Baluba in front of us. We now jumped 
into the water and waded across. The greater number 
of Baluba, only men, pushed towards the point where 
we wanted to land, and when we had approached the 
shore to within about thirty-five metres they threw 
large stones at us. The dehght of the Kalosh became 
greater and greater. Then suddenly a stone nearly hit 
my face, some spears followed, and even a shot from one 
of the few guns in the possession of the Baluba, which 
showed us that now we had to act, I took my rifle and 
shot the foremost of the stone-throwers between the eyes 
through his head, so that he fell down on his face. 



With the second barrel I laid another man low, when 
he was just about to throw his spear at me. My com- 
panions as well as those from the opposite bank, who 
were watching the proceedings, began to fire at the 
Baluba. The dense crowd retreated from the river, and 
my three companions and I made use of that moment 
to climb the bank, under cover of the precipice. The 
whole number of Baluba fled, and my people tore after 
them shouting with delight at the surprising result. 

A strange effect of my first shot was seen in the case 
of a native lying close to the shore. The ball had 
entered his head between the eyes, and caused the skull 
to split all round quite evenly. The crowd — which, 
according to the calculation of the women, numbered 
at least 500 — had fled in all directions, leaving five dead 

On returning to our caravan some natives appeared 
up the river, calling out to us that we must, during 
the hostilities, consider a small brook falling into the 
river opposite as the boundary between us ; those living- 
south of it, not being engaged in the contest, were ac- 
cordingly assured of neutrality. 

Close to the edge of the Bushi-Maji I chose as a place 
of encampment a small neck of land, formed by the river 
and a lagoon, and accessible from the land only, with a 
breadth of ten metres. The connection with the main- 
land was quickly cut ofi" by a barricade of trees. All 
the canoes that were found near were fastened to the 
bank; then we posted sentinels, as some patrols re- 
ported the approach of a large number of Baluba. 
Towards evening a gigantic chief, accompanied by only 


a few people and without arms, came to our camp, in- 
timating his peaceable intentions by clapping his hands. 
I called him near ; and after he had expressed his sur- 
prise at the first white man he had seen, he proved his 
pacific disposition by offering to ask natives from the 
opposite side to come close to the shore, under the 
pretence of negotiating with them, in order to give me 
the opportunity of shooting at them from behind a tree. 
The disgust with which I refused his treacherous pro- 
posal greatly astonished him. His manner showed that 
caution was necessary with the Baluba. 

Kashawalla learnt that by starting at sunrise we 
should reach the Luilu, the central tributary of the 
Lubilash, in the afternoon, and that from thence it 
would be only a long day's journey to the Lubiranzi. 
Both these rivers were said to be of the same size and 
depth as the Bushi-Maji. Between the latter and the 
Luilu lived the Baqua Mukendi, beyond the Luilu again 
Baluba. Li order to get to Kassongo Chiniama, I had, 
I was told, to go three days' march towards the south 
between the Luilu and Lubiranzi. This was corroborated 
by my Bashilange guides ; but such a statement only 
proved that their former assertions had been incorrect. 
My cunning Humba told me that after his inquiries he 
was convinced that our Balungu were not sent by Kas- 
songo, but were part of a caravan of traders, who in 
conducting us to their chief wanted to gain his favour 
and be rewarded by him. Kassongo Chiniama was 
said to possess many guns from the south, from Lunda, 
and to be subject to Mona Kanjika, who lived only a day's 
journey from him ; Mona Kanjika, again, was subject to 

I 2 


Muata Jamwo of Luuda. The Balunou, beincy now 
sliarply questioned, and convinced that they could no 
longer deceive us, gave us many interesting reports. 
They spoke of a European who had come from the east, 
and who had passed through their country many years 
before accompanied by a Mukalanga (an Arab). This 
had evidently been Lieutenant Cameron. Then they 
told us that another white man with Kangombe carriers 
(Bihe people) had been with them, who had come from 
the south, and had gone round the east of Lunda ; he 
had presented Kassongo with a revolver, and was pro- 
bably a Portuguese trader who later was at war with 
the Arab Faniba, and had had to flee with the loss of 
the greater part of his goods. I was the first white 
man, they said, who had come from the west. 

Here, then, we had approached a point where the 
journeys of the three first Europeans, from the east, 
from the south, and from the west, met. The people 
also knew that Pogge and I had formerly passed farther 
north. They were evidently acquainted, too, with the 
western tributary of the Lualaba, the Komorondo ; for 
they said that, in going to Katanga to fetch copper, 
they were obliged to pass the Lomami and another 
large river, which flowed through a series of lakes. 
Later, when unfavourable circumstances prevented my 
exploring the Lualaba, I reproached myself for not 
having tried to advance into the Balungu district. 

When night had set in, an uninterrupted noise of 
drums and shouts began in the territory of the punished 
Kalosh. Under cover of the darkness they came to the 
edge of the river and jeered at us. I sent them word by 


the Balungu that I wished them next day to surrender 
the two warriors who had begun the fight by throwing 
stones, and that if they did so I should keep the peace ; 
if they did not do so I should come over and burn 
their farms. They answered scornfully, that I might 
come if I liked ; they would to-morrow morning oppose 
me with a force innumerable as the grass of the savannah 
(a favourite African comparison), that would annihilate 
me and my party. The Baqua Mukendi before us were 
likewise alarmed, and they just waited to see where I 
was going, since, now I was here, they did not mean me 
to leave the Baluba country any more. My Bashilange 
slept little during the night, for the incessant screaming 
from the opposite bank — an exulting, piercing sound 
which, uttered through the hollow hand, resembles the 
bark of a hyena — kept them in constant excitement. 

Next morning I had to distribute cartridges, for, to 
my surprise, I found that the Bashilange, firing across 
the river the day before, had used up nearly all their 
ammunition. Our departure was certainly not to be 
thought of, as it was possible the Kalosh might follow, 
and we did not know how the tribes in front micrht be 
disposed towards us. Considering the insolence of the 
Kalosh, the only means to get rid of them would be to 
attack them in their hamlets, and to scatter them in 
such a way that they would not be able to assemble 
again before our departure ; this would at the same 
time intimidate the other tribes. At daybreak I 
crossed the river with 100 men, leaving De Macar in 
defence of the fortified camp, for the Kalosh were 
descendins^ in endless swarms to the bank. 




The natives living opposite the brook called out to 
me to request that I would wait ; they would try once 
more to restore peace by surrendering the enemies de- 
manded, or by a payment on the part of the Kalosh. I 
gave them time, which I indicated by pointing with my 
hand to the height of the sun, and waited on the shore. 


Nothing, however, was to be seen of the Kalosh, and 
when the sun reached the height I had fixed upon, I 
marched straight through their hundreds of farms, of 
which those in the immediate neighbourhood were 
even then deserted. Troops of enemies followed us be- 
yond reach of a shot, with their long s|)ears, beating 
their shields and mockino- us. I forbade shooting and 


marched briskly on. I was soon amongst farms that 
were still inhabited, and everywhere the j)eople began 
to flee in the utmost haste. Everj^one ran to and fro 
with his belono-incrs, but I marched steadily forward to 
the summit of a hiU that commanded a view into the far 

I now sent out companies, each consisting of ten 
men, in all directions to make prisoners and to report 
about any warlike gatherings. I showed the patrols 
the boundary of their advance, and gave orders that if 
they saw smoke ascending from the farm where I 
stopped they were to return to me, after having set on 
fire such farms as they could reach. 

I soon knew by the bright fires that the troops had 
here and there encountered the enemy ; only from one 
quarter we got the message that the force of the Kalosli 
was too strong to be attacked by the j^atrol. A reinforce- 
ment was sent at full speed to the spot, and rapid shoot- 
ing from the same direction, which seemed to get more 
and more distant, announced the defeat of the enemy. 

When the firing had ceased on all sides I set the 
farm on fire, and pillars of smoke rising everywhere in a 
half-circle told me that my signal had been noticed. 
My troops now approached, literally loaded with fowls, 
and driving goats before them like prisoners. I marched 
slowly back, and did not reach the Bushi-Maji till late 
in the afternoon, and from the cheering shouts in the 
camps I concluded that everything was all right there. 
When we reached the camp, the booty, some thirty 
goats, several hundreds of fowls, and the corn, was dis- 
tributed, and the prisoners, numbering over a hundred, 


were fenced in, so as to be better watched. According 
to my guides' account, about ten Baluba, who had fled 
in every direction after a short resistance, were killed. 
One of our party, however, was missing, and by the 
evening we saw his head, which they had fastened to a 
long pole, displayed by the Kalosh. 

The natives on our right bank, who had assembled 
in great numbers near the camp, were at first thoroughly 
intimidated by the surprising result ; but that this mood 
would not last long was proved by the behaviour of the 
Kalosh, who began to jeer at us from the opposite bank 
as soon as it was dark. I had now to decide upon the 
next steps to be taken. 

For six more days we had to pass through territory 
quite as populous as before, and on one of those days 
we must again come upon part of the Kalosh tribe, 
who, as the Mukendi thought, would certainly make 
war. By that time we should have reached Kassongo 
Chiniama, of whose disposition we were by no means 
sure, and of whose hot-headed, warlike people our 
guides were an example. Provisions were getting 
scarce, as we had been deceived about the distance ; 
but, what was more serious, our ammunition was so 
much reduced that I had not more than five cartridges 
at the utmost left for each man. It was impossible to 
deter the Bashilange from shooting, even at ridiculously 
long distances. 

Our way to Kassongo Chiniama had led us far 
beyond the southern boundary of the Congo State, so 
that I could take upon me no further risk, if only for the 
reason that Kassonoo Chiniama no lono-er belono-ed to the 
Congo State. Thus I was left no choice but to decide 


upon a retreat, though the idea of having to go back 
for the first time in Africa was exceedingly painful to 
me ; however, I had to think of my Bashilange and 
avoid the loss of human life in prospect of my intended 
long journey. Though I had not seen the Luilu and 
Lubiranzi, as I should have desired, the reports about 
these two rivers so agreed with each other that an 
error about the situation was not probable. I had 
seen enough of the country and its people, and the 
scenery was said always to remain the same — grass- 
savannah everywhere. The population as far as the 
boundary of Balungu consisted of Baluba, with whom I 
did not wish to have anything to do. 

The Baluba have remarkably little inclination to 
improve their arms and utensils. Their spears are simply 
long pointed rods of hard wood ; their shields are made 
of coarse wickerwork, their clubs are without any 
carving, and their kitchen pots and pans are of the same 
shape as those used farther west ; indeed, everything 
showed rudeness and an entire want of a sense of 
beauty. The huts, in the shape already described, were 
slovenly ; anything there was of iron, weapons or utensils, 
was Lunda work or imported from the Bashilange. The 
country itself is miserably monotonous. They have 
nothing that would be suitable for commerce with 
neighbouring people, except human beings, and e\evj- 
thing imported is paid for with slaves. Even firewood 
is wanting. Nor is there any game, in consequence of 
the dense population scattered everywhere. Goats are 
not often found, Mdiile sheep and pigs are not met with 
anywhere. Nex^- to Ugogo, in the far east of Africa, 
this country is the most inhospitable that I know of 


and the most unsuitable for any attempts at civilization. 
But what disgusted us most was the childish insolence 
of the people ; in the case of great numbers, this may 
prove dangerous for a traveller. 

I did not impart my resolution to turn back to my 
party, though Kalamba Moana, Tenda, and the other 
chiefs were intensely anxious to know what I should do. 
Kalamba Moana gave a ' Moiio ' in the evening, propos- 
ing that I should restore the prisoners, which, he said, 
would allay the hostility of the tribes, so that we might 
proceed without disturbance. How little a negro knows 
his own race ! The Kalosli would certainly have con- 
sidered our surrendering the prisoners as a sign of fear. 
I refused such proposals, and told Kalamba that the 
prisoners were mine, and not one man should be re- 
stored, na}', more, that on the morrow I should again 
attack the Kalosh and make more prisoners. I made 
this ' Moiio,' convinced that some Baluba were near the 
camp and would overhear Kalamba Moana's and my 
speeches, by which I hoped to iniimidate the Baluba. 

J^ext day I gave the customary signal for departure, 
and commanded the van of the caravan, which always 
consisted of my veterans, to cross the river and march 
the same way back that we had come. This command, 
the true reasons for which no one knew, caused a great 
commotion among the Bashilange, and the greater j^art 
of them sincerely regretted that I would not continue 
the journey. They of course joined their guides without 
disputing, and the caravan was so arranged that those 
with arms who had no loads to carry were distributed on 
every side, in order to protect and guard the carriers, 


women, and prisoners. Though everybody fled from us, 
as they had done yesterday, my caravan behaved badly, 
and tauii'ht me that a retreat with ne2:roes, even under the 
most favourable circumstances, is always a critical affair. 
Small troops of natives kept running at a safe distance 
alongside of our caravan, now taking a threatening 
position in front of us, now collecting behind, without 
seemino- to be able to venture on an attack. The cara- 
van might have been compared to a flock of sheep sur- 
rounded by wolves. Our people pressed together, rush- 
ing on in such a hurry that I lost much of the trust I 
had put in the Bashilange. 

Only once did the Baluba come so near that one of 
my men fired at them. The chief task of the soldiers 
who marched in front was to prevent the others from 
pushing forward. M}^ veterans could only effect this by 
driving back those that pressed forward too quickly ; 
thus we were able to make a retreat which, at least from 
a distance, apj)eared to be a quiet one. In this con- 
fusion a number of the prisoners managed to escape. 
If the Baluba could have assured themselves of our 
real condition, they certainly would have made an 
attack. In order that it should not have the appear- 
ance of a retreat, I halted several times to rearrange the 

The pursuit, or rather the disturbance on the part 
of our enemy, did not cease till we ascended the ridge 
of the hill and left the populous valley of the Buslii- 
Maji. As I said before, I felt richer by this very im- 
portant experience. If I had my choice again I should 
prefer a rash and apparently hazardous attack to a 


retreat under seemingly favourable circumstances with 
undisciplined negroes. The moral superiority of an 
attack makes such an impression on him that he does not 
notice the strength of the enemy ; on the other hand, it 
tells on those attacked so overwhelmingly that they do 
not recomiise the weakness of the assailant. This obser- 
vation was of particular advantage to me in 1889, during 
the first encounters which I had to engage in with young 
troops, when suppressing the East African rebellion. 

We encamped in the same place that we had occupied 
when coming, and noticed that the Baqua Disho, who 
were no doubt well acquainted with the events of the 
last few days, were less timid than might have been 
expected. When the people came into our camp to 
trade, several prisoners disappeared, evidently with their 
assistance ; even one of our dogs was stolen, but was re- 
stored again when I made it plain to the chief, who was 
present in the camp, that he would not be allowed to 
leave before I got the dog back. They even wanted, 
obviously urged by the Kalosh, to induce us to stay. 

The summit of a hill that commanded a view for 
miles of the densely populated country afforded a suit- 
able camp next day. The number of invalids increased 
alarmingly ; inflammation of the lungs especially began 
to show itself, caused by the cold nights and the strong 
winds that were continually blowing across the open 
prairie of the Baluba. 

My quinine was used up, and the mustard plasters 
had been spoilt ; these latter I tried to replace by 
poultices of hot flour mixed with red pepper. 

As we went on, our old guide, Kasairi Pambu, with 


some other chiefs, made his appearance, and, march- 
ing in front of us, they dispersed any gathering of 
armed people. We halted on the Lukalla, the boundary 
of the Baluba country, still the territory of the Kalosh. 
We found them holding one of the fairs, as is customary 
with all Baluba and most nations of Equatorial Africa, 
in celebration of which about 4,000 people were assem- 
bled in a large square. Besides the usual provisions 
offered for sale, there were articles of earthenware, and 
articles made from the palm, uruhu (a dark red dye), 
Midipemha (a white dye). Our aj^pearance did not in 
the least disturb the assembly. A very stringent law 
had made this fair neutral ground, and we learned that 
even peojole of hostile tribes might appear without 
danger. The chief in whose territory the fair was held 
kept watch in his greatest pomp with half a dozen 
guards, in order that no disjDute might disturb its peace. 
His cordpanions were known by the broad axe which 
they carried on their shoulders, and whenever a some- 
what loud dispute arose they were immediately at their 
posts. The chief Kashama, the controller of this fair, 
wore a beautifully arranged ornament of the plumes of 
the corythaix and parrot on his head. Eound his throat 
and neck he wore a garment trimmed with strips of 
long-haired goat's skin, and round the hips a crinoline- 
shaped band of white skins. In his right hand he held 
a large fetish horn, in his left a far-sounding rattle (an 
ornamented calabash filled with stones). Eound his 
ankles were twisted many cords with iron bells, so 
that each step of the giant made a tinkling sound. 
Behind him crouched one of his guards with the large 


judge's hatchet, and beside him a man who now and then 
beat a laro-e wooden drum. 

At intervals, Kashama performed his dances, accom- 
panied by the screaming of the multitude, in the large 
space kept open for him. These dances consisted of 
grotesque leaps alternating with indecent rolling of the 
hips. After each dance a woman, likewise dancing, 
approached, placing her fairing before the chief. Each 
parish whose representatives are present on trading- 
business has to give a present to the chief of the fair. 

Durin"- the niejlit the thermometer fell below 8° 
Celsius, so that De Macar and I took all the clothes out 
of our boxes to put them over the blankets. 

Even next morning till about nine o'clock my hands 
were stiff with cold, rendering writing very difficult. 

On the 17 th we again reached Mona Tenda's village, 
and indeed it was high time to give ni}^ people rest, for 
disease had alarmingly increased. Inflammation of the 
lungs and fever were raging, and I was greatly alarmed 
at the complaints of back-aches and flashings before 
the eyes, as small-pox often begins with those symptoms, 
and there were ten cases of small-pox in the village even 

The chiefs of my party, to whom I had made known 
that I should only await the arrival of provisions and 
ammunition before proceeding to Kassongo Chiniama, 
came to me requesting me to abandon the journey. 
They thought the Kalosh had revenged themselves by 
bewitching us, this being the only reason of our having 
so many invalids. Knowing that Germano was soon 
expected from the coast, I resolved upon marching back 


to the station. First, however, I ordered three days of 
rest, and sent back some Baluba of our party with the 
message that I was ready to ransom the prisoners wdio 
were their relatives, asking, on the average, four goats 
for each prisoner — of which concession they soon availed 
themselves. In the end, we took a number of prisoners 
with us to the station, intending to send them back 
later on. I allowed some Baluba, relatives of Kasairi 
and Kashama, to accompany me to Luluaburg, thinking 
it might assist us in getting on a better footing with 
the Kalosh. 

The merchant Saturnino, who had again followed me, 
and who was now on his way to the above-mentioned 
Kassongo Luaba, came to visit me ; he also had been 
invited by the Balungu. From his guides I learnt that 
my suppositions about the tributaries of the Sankurru 
were quite right. The people added that the most 
eastern tributary, the Lubilasha, sprang from a lake 
twenty days' journey farther south. 

Two of the Baluba who had fought against us on the 
Bushi-Maji presented a remarkable apjDearance. Both of 
them had a number of grains of shot in the back and 
chest. They requested me to remove them, saying that 
only a white man could heal wounds made by fire-arms. 
They thought a great many people had been wounded 
without daring to come to me. I of course helped them 
as well as I could, and in order to reward their confi- 
dence I dismissed them with a small present. 

Three Bashilange had succumbed to their illness ;, 
before starting for Luluaburg a number that were unable 
to march I entrusted to Mona Tenda's care, leaving a 




home south 

the Bakete 
The ap- 
pearance of the country was the same as on commg. 
Marcliing through Baqua Mulenda and Baqua Chia 
we met a small caravan of Mukenge, at the head of 
which the star flag was displayed. We had chosen 
the same way as Von Francois had done at the time, and, 


like him, we had great difficulty in passing the boggy 
pandanus jungles bordering the brooks. The principal 
chief of the Baqua Kassassu, one of the opponents, paid 
a fine for his non-appearance, and had to accompany 
me to Luluaburg. 

We passed the source of the Moansangomma, which 
falls into the Lubudi, whose mouth Wolf had found on 
the Sankurru. The number of the weak and sick was 
so large that we had frequently to make a day's halt. 

A few hours before reachino- Luluaburo- 1 learnt that 
there had been a o-reat conflao-ration at the station. 
I saw on arriving there on the 25th that the large bar- 
racks, containing twenty-one rooms, had been entirely 
destroyed by fire. The walls, consisting of strong trees 
plastered with clay, had been burning for three days. 
Nothing else had happened ; Germano had not arrived ; 
but letters had come from Angola, which reported about 
the provisions to be expected. 

The time now approached when I had to place under 
command of Kalamba the chiefs who had received the 
flag of the Congo State. I agreed with him that this 
should take place at the station. Only the villages 
in the nearest vicinity of the station, under their chief 
Chiniama, were to become immediately subject to it ; 
while Kalamba was responsible for all the other chiefs 
of Lubuku. September 10 was fixed as the day of 
meeting of the princes of Lubuku, and once more 
patrols were sent in all directions to deliver the 

News had arrived from Lieutenant Bateman on the 
Luebo of his having had an encounter with the Bakuba, 



who had retreated with the loss of five men. I there- 
fore sent down orders to communicate this to the 
great chief Luquengo, and to request that he, accord- 
ing to his promise to Wolf, should place himself on a 
good footing with us, unless he wanted us to visit him 
with a few thousand Bashilange. 

At the beginning of the rain}^ season the Europeans 
had, as usual, much to suffer from fever. Lieutenant Le 
Marinel was visited l^y a dangerous fever, which so 
exhausted him that we began to fear for his life. As 
he could not swallow quinine I gave him injections, 
experiencing great difficulties from the want of proper 
medicines. I had only sulphuric quinine, which I 
dissolved in acetic acid for the injection. The conse- 
quence was that the injection caused large and deep 
wounds. The quinine took effect in spite of all, and 
after the intense irritation was removed by injections of 
morphia, I had the great satisfaction of finding him free 
from fever, after a nearly two days' sleep, which was so 
profound as only to be interrupted b}'' the painful in- 
jections. A so-called cock-tail, a beverage compounded 
of brandy, sugar, eggs, bitters, and nutmeg, proved a 
very salutary nourishment and stimulant. It was a 
long time before the weakened constitution of the ori- 
ginally strong young officer was restored to perfect 






Meeting of the chiefs of Lubukn — Heavy hail storm — My fruitless 
search for Germano — Dr. Sommers — Germano at last — Departure 
for our long journey to the North-East — Camp building — Piobberies 
and skirmish — Prairies — Villages set on fire — Pacific welcome — Slave 
trade of the Bihe people — Primaeval forests — Inhospitable savages — 
On the Lubi — Simao's gallant swimming expedition — Punishment of 
the rapacious Ngongo — A thief punished by an arrow-shot — On the 

Xow followed, as it were, a Sisyi^hus-work, which did 
not lead to the aim desired for two months, viz. to 
make Kalamba head chief of Lubuku, though he had to 
be subject to us. It had not required much trouble 
to force the seniors of the villages to submit to their 
upper chiefs, but to unite the different opinions of the 
latter, each of whom considered himself greatest, ]3roved 
more difficult than I had counted upon. 

The returning patrols, who had given the chiefs 
notice of the appointed meeting, brought some of them 
back with them. Others had reported themselves ill, 
some were from home, and others again plainly refused 
to come. The most obstinate was Kilunga Messo, who, 
whenever I went to him, promised ever^^thing, paid his 
fine, and declared himself ready to obey, but would not 

K 2 



subordinate liimself to the command of Kalamba. As 
I had advisedly arrived at the result that the Bashi- 
lange could only be ruled by one of their own party, 
I did not give way, but resolved eventually to carry 
oat my intention by force. Thirty-six chiefs met at 
last at Luluaburo-, among them Kiluno-a Messo ; but 


Xalamba, who was at times very obstinate, played me the 
trick of not coming, because, as he sent me word, he was 
afraid of being fetished by Kilunga Messo, whom he 
durst not look in the face before he (Kilunga) had 
smoked hemp in his kiota. So I was compelled to 
induce the last opposing chief, Kilunga Messo, to 


submit at Kalamba's village, or rather town, for the 
place contained at least 10,000 inhabitants. 

The reception at Kalamba's, when I brought him the 
last of the opposing chiefs, was a grand one. My 'Moiio ' 
was repeated by at least 5,000 voices. In the centre of 
the kiota, round which the innumerable mass of people 
had crowded, Kilunga Messo had to walk three times 
round the sacred fire of hemp, saying the while that he 
did not entertain any evil thoughts against Kalamba ; 
then, sitting between Kalamba Moana and another chief, 
he had to smoke hemp ; after which he was led into Ka- 
lamba's house, where the reconciliation of the two old 
enemies and the personal subordination of Kilunga Messo 
to Kalamba took place. Great was the delight all round 
that peace now reigned at Lubuku, and that they had 
no longer to fear the nations beyond the boundary of 
the hemp-smoking Bashilange ; nations weak in com- 
parison to the now united Lubuku. Playing at war, 
shooting, hemp-smoking, dancing and singing termi- 
nated the festivities of the alliance of Lubuku. 

Before I rode back to the station Kalamba gave me 
a beautiful bull, which he had bought of the Kioques, 
and promised to observe all that I had asked of him as 
the condition of retaining his supremacy. 

The chief requirements were the following : All the 
old hostilities were to be forgotten. The chiefs alone 
were to retain power over their inferiors. The tri- 
bute was to be paid regularly, once a year, and it 
was not to be excessive. The chiefs were to be at 
liberty to complain of Kalamba to the head of the 
station. No wars were to be carried on without the 


consent of the head of Luhiaburg. Convicts under sen- 
tence of death were to be surrendered to the station. 
The drinking oi juramento — a poison which was used, in 
a contest between two, to decide as to the judgment of 
God — was prohibited. For journeys, wars, or particu- 
larly important work, Kalamba had to furnish men ; for 
those used for work or for an escort a reo-ular tax had 
to be paid, and those for warlike purposes he had to 
furnish gratis. The market price was to be the same 
throughout Lubuku. 

I was engaged till the end of September in regu- 
lating these political affairs, whose stability will of course 
always be dej^endent on the controlling power of the 

The meteorological phenomena of the months of 
August and September ]iad been exceedingly strange. 
The rainy season had set in, but not in earnest ; for 
although the sky was always overcast, we had only occa- 
sional drizzling rain or short showers without thunder, 
a very rare occurrence in these regions. Cold winds 
often developing into whirlwinds were frequent, and 
on August 14 a curious phenomenon occurred. Black 
clouds, which moved with extraordinary speed, were 
visible in the north-east. A wind, that seemed to us icy, 
came in storm-like gusts from the same quarter across 
the savannah, scorched by the meridian sun. The 
thermometer sank from 33° to 19" C, bananas were 
l^roken down, and many houses were unroofed in the 
next village. After the threatening dark clouds had 
drawn near across the Lulua, there was a shower of hail, 
rattling down in transparent icy crystals — mostly in cubes 


whose sides were of from one to two centimetres lonsf 
— on men and beasts, causing them to scream with pain, 
and look out for sheUer. This lasted for seven minutes, 
then the hail became gradually smaller, then rounded, 
and at length turned white, resembling the hailstones 
of our country. The Bashilange were quite as astonished 
at this incident as we were. Not before the becfinningf 
of October did the regular rainy season set in, with its 
one or two storms daily, mostly taking place between 
5 P.M. and midnight. 

At the same time I learnt that caravans were 
advancing, and with them the longed-for Germano. 
Eeports of a war between the Bangala and the Kioques, 
through whose countries Germano had to pass, had 
made me very anxious. 

On October 1 I started with Le Marinel to meet 
Germano on the Cassai, where difficulties for the caravan 
were to be apprehended. In crossing the Luebo we 
entered the territory of the Chipulumba. These 
tribes, to whom Pogge and I had given the name of 
' the thieves ' on our first journey to Lubuku, were even 
more hateful to us now than before, on account of thefts, 
punishments, threats, and a thousand and one troubles. 

The eastern Bashilange have adopted the plural ' Tu ' 
instead of ' Ba ' of the Tupende. 

It is singular what a difference there is between the 
hemp-smoking Bashilange of Lubuku and this thievishly 
insolent and lying mob. 

Not one hour passed in the camp without my in- 
tervention being necessary for settling or punishing 
robberies, thefts, or some other acts of violence. 


On crossing tlie Luebo we met a caravan who had 
seen nothing of Germano, though they had marched 
exceedingly slowly, besides stopping on the Cassai for 
some time. I now began to conjecture that Germano, 
on account of the above-named war, had been forced to 
retreat to the coast, or that he had been deprived of 
his provisions ; and, greatly disappointed and depressed, 
I returned to Luluaburg. As without new provisions a 
further prosecution of my task was not to be thought 
of, I resolved to go down the Congo in the iron boat 
with a choice crew, and thence to return by steamer to 
procure provisions. No sooner had I selected the best 
of my veterans, among them Humba and Simao of 
course, and some Zanzibaris of Luebo station, and made 
the most necessary preparations for the rather long and 
hazardous journey, than suddenly, on October 17, the 
news arrived that Germano and a white man were within 
three days' journey. 

I started next morning, and as early as eight o'clock 
met a small caravan headed by a European unknown to 
me. Dr. Sommers, having separated from the expedi- 
tion of the missionary Bishop Taylor in Angola, had 
come here with Germano, intent upon independent mis- 
sionary work. He had left Germano three days before, 
and had marched on in order to announce his coming. 
Next day I actually met Germano on the Muveau, with 
a thousand excuses for his unheard-of delay. With him 
were 200 carriers and 100 head of cattle. A large part 
of the caravan belonged to some black traders who had 
joined Germano. A great many of the provisions I had 
ordered had been spent in presents to chiefs, who had 


made difficulties on account of the war. My intended 
journey was at all events made possible now. The stock 
of cattle at the station was pleasantly increased, and by 
my desire Germano had Ijrought turkeys and domestic 
cats, which I wanted to try to introduce in these parts. 
As I had apprehended, the expedition had had to en- 
counter difficulties on the Cassai. Dr. Sommers and 
Germano had been compelled to oppose the insolent de- 
mands of some Kioque chiefs by a warlike demonstration. 

Now commenced the organising with all our might 
of the expedition to the east. We were fully occupied 
in hiring carriers, packing loads, superintending the 
soldiers' exercises, shooting at targets, and other pre- 
parations. Kalamba requested a further delay of a 
month, which I refused, and we succeeded in completing 
the arrangements for our departure within ten days. 

A several days' fever, however, again forced me to 
delay. At last the stations were placed under Captain 
de Macar, Dr. Sommers, and Lieutenant Bateman ; the 
latter, as head of Luebo station, remained with him, 
and on November 16 I left Luluaburg with Lieute- 
nant Le Marinel, Bugslag, Humba, Simao, besides 15 
soldiers, 42 coasters, 38 ransomed Baluba slaves, 
and 250 Bashilange carriers. Sangula Meta, Kalamba 
Moana, and Chingenge joined us with 600 followers, 
among whom were 100 women. The caravan was 
accordingly 900 and odd strong, armed with 500 guns, 
mostly muzzle-loading. 

Luluaburg, where I had worked so long, felt almost 
like home to me. Especially when, riding at the rear 
out of the gates, I called out a farewell to some of my 


old veterans, who remained behind, I could scarcely 
master my emotion, all the more when the oldest, an 
ancient with white hair and beard, strewing ashes befor^ 
me as a fetish for the journey, exclaimed at parting : 
' Deus guarda vossa excellentia ! ' 

At Chingenge we passed the Lulua and marched 
N.N.E. ; this was a more northerly direction than I had 
formerly taken with Pogge. The country at first re- 
mained the same as near Luluaburg ; palm groves alter- 
nated with dense growth of primasval forest, and in the 
valleys were savannahs of thick trees. The clearings 
of the wood showed thickets of pine-apples ; the narrow 
bottoms of the steeply-cut brooks and their slopes were 
mantled with primaeval forest. The ridges of the 
rounded parts of the plateau between two slopes were 
covered with laterite. The humus was washed away 
and floated to deeper places, where it lay rather thickly. 
The water currents had penetrated through the layer of 
laterite, and thence through a layer of about thirty 
metres of sandstone, down to the hard bottom of 
Plutonic rocks. It was only upon our approaching the 
Moansangomma that the layer of sandstone failed, and 
the valleys of the brooks grew more shallow, wide, and 

The continual rainy season did not much disturb 
us, since the regular thunderstorms did not set in till 
evening, or even night ; my people were so far compelled 
only to cover their huts more carefully than usual. At 
first I took great care to arrano-e the huts mvself, in 
order to accustom the Bashilange to build the Kilombo 
(camp) in a circle. The country abounded in guinea 


fowls, savannah fowls, and especially pigeons. Of the 
fonr species of the latter, I mention the beautifnl 
golden green parrot-dove, living in flocks of ten or 

Without any remarkable change we passed through 
the villages of Bena Eiamba, the people of which were 
devoted tx) us. Everywhere we received the customary 
presents and lived sumptuously, as our people were 
allowed free use of the fields, and the}^ had onl}^ to pur- 
chase the ingredients for their meals of vegetables. 

As soon as we had passed the boundary of Lubuku 
on the 26th, and come to the Chipulumba tribes, first 
among them the Bena Moanga, quarrels and acts of 
violence commenced. Any trading that they could not 
agree about turned into a fight, the consequences of 
which obliged us to apply our surgical knowledge to 
the wounds inflicted. The fault did not lie with the 
Chipulumba alone, for our Bashilange were repeatedly 
hurried into acts of violence by their sense of superiority 
and hatred. Bugslag, who invariably wound up the 
caravan with part of the soldiers, had been obliged in 
the Baqua Lussabi country to drive away the obstinately 
pursuing Chipulumba with a harmless shot ; the j^eople 
wanted to repay themselves by plunder for objects that 
they pretended had been stolen from them. 

It turned out that one of our men, who had remained 
behind, was seized and retained by the Lussabi, so that 
I had to send back twenty men in search of him. The 
natives received my soldiers with firing, but as soon as 
the fire was returned they deserted tlie village, leaving 
a boy and girl in the hands of my people. 



111 the evening my man was 
restored, together with a present 
of a few goats, after which I 
likewise sent back the captive 
children. I had two Bashilange, 
one of my ransomed slaves and 
a coast-carrier, punished with 
fifty lashes for having taken fowls from the natives by 
force and thus caused disputes. 

We waded through the very strong current of the 
Lubudi, where it was twenty metres in breadth and one 
metre in depth. At the urgent request of my people 
T distributed two charges of powder each to the Bashi- 
lanofe.and five cartridges each to the soldiers and carriers. 
North of the Lubudi we lighted upon a vast grass 
savannah, similar to the one we had met with at Baluba. 
These undulating prairies seem to extend west of the 



Lubilasli district along the seventh and fifth degree, 
as far as the Kalunda countries. 

As in all grass savannahs, with their dark red 
porous laterite, we found an abundance of iron here, 
and near the extensive villao-e of the Bena Lukoba, 
situated on a large pond resembling Mukamba Lake, 
we came upon a number of beautifully constructed 


An immense cylinder of hard-baked clay of nearly 
two metres diameter served as a receptacle for hard 
dry wood, amidst which layers of the iron clay were 
packed. The burning of the logs could be slackened 
by lessening the draught. The heavy particles of iron, 
melted out of the iron ore, fell to the bottom of the 
cylinder, and as the strongly heated structure prevented 


their cooling, the}^ ^^assecl into a reservoir purified by a 
tube which conducted the draught from below. The 
houses gradually assumed the shape of the eastern 
Baluba houses, and the tattooing ceased : instead of it 
we found painting with black, white, and red colours — 
the only ones known here. The pond near the village, 
about 500 metres long and 150 metres broad, with an 
average depth of 1"G metre and a boggy bottom, had a 
temperature of 26° C, and was stocked with large wild 
ducks ; round its flat grassy banks crouched the night 
raven, which is always found on large plains or near 
the water. The bustard, finding a congenial locality, 
was also frequently met with. 

On the 30th ,we approached several villages, whose 
inhabitants, Baqua Kajinga, had a month ago attacked 
and robbed a caravan of Chingenge's. Two of Chin- 
genge's men had been struck by poisoned arrows, and 
they were afterwards killed and buried. The Kajinga, 
in fear of punishment, had taken flight, and Chingenge 
asked permission to burn their villages as a requital, 
to which, his account proving true, I consented. When 
the site of the three small villages of the rapacious 
Kajinga was only a heap of smoking ruins, Chingenge 
with his warriors went to the place where the members 
of his tribe were buried and, after the fashion he had 
learned from us, fired three salutes. 

On inspecting the village before the conflagration, 
poisoned arrows were found ; the poison, however, 
seemed to be very old, for an experiment tried on a 
fowl had but small result. 

A very narrow track of primeval forest, extending 


for miles, separated the country of the robbers from the 
Baqua Sekelai, from whose villages a deputation came 
to meet us, beckoning to us with palm-branches. The 
chief, marching at the van, assured us that he had not 
been eno-ao-ed in the before-mentioned attack, but that 
he was commissioned by the Kajinga to pay a fine as an 


atonement for their crime. After assurinsf him that we 


had no hostile design, we pitched our camp in the centre 
of his numerous villages, whose inhabitants owned mau}^ 
guns. The customary presents having been exchanged, 
the chief reappeared, carrying thirty Baluba slaves, three 
goats, and a leopard's skin, as an atonement for the crime 
committed and in payment for the ivory stolen from 


Cliingenge. 1 decided that, considering tlie punishment 
they had sustained in having their villages burnt down, 
I would make this payment do, which, according to 
African custom, I divided between myself, the judge, 
those who were robbed, and their chiefs. 

I repeatedly accepted presents and payments, even 
if consisting in slaves : in the first place, because this is 
African custom, and secondly, because the refusal of a 
present would be considered an insult ; moreover, the 
slaves would have a much better lot with me or with 
the Lubuku than with the sava<i'e natives. There were 
a large number of such captives at Luluaburg, who had 
to work a certain time for the station, for which they 
received clothes and maintenance. After a time, which 
depended on the work they had done, they received full 
wages and were naturally free. After being ransomed, 
they mostly built their villages near the protecting 
station, and seldom made use of their permission to 
return home. 

In the very populous district of the Baqua Chameta 
I allowed my caravan a day's halt, and, yielding to the 
wishes of the natives, I distributed brass wire and small 
beads for the purchase of provisions. Our old Sangula 
found a man here whom she had, years before, chosen 
for her husband, but who had abandoned his rather 
domineering consort by running away l3efore the end of 
the honeymoon. The old lady pardoned her former 
lover, announcing to me her intention of taking him as 
a travelling companion. At first he seemed greatly re- 
joiced at this prospect ; but when we started two days 
after, he was nowhere to be found. Sangula was most 


indignant at liis ingratitude, as she had dressed him up 
and supplied him with all her treasures. 

Part of a caravan of Bihe people were present here, 
and I had a great mind to make them prisoners for their 
slave-trading. I had to abandon the idea, however, not 
knowing what to do with them. They carry on the 
most shameful slave trade imaginable. Black traders 
from Ano'ola or Beno-uela turn Bihe carriers or attend- 
ants, who, though thievish, are comparatively bold and 
warlike, and who undertake longer journeys than any 
other negroes of the west coast. They go in quest 
of countries where a gun is unknown ; they make 
arrangements with the chiefs about supplies of slaves, 
and they will even join slave-hunters. They then take 
their prisoners to the Bakuba tribes, where they exchange 
them for ivory, which they take home by the nearest 
route, mostly by Kabao and the Lulua. 

The Bakuba buy male slaves for the sole purpose of 
killing them at funerals. The higher the rank of the de- 
ceased, the more slaves have to follow him to the grave. ^ 

The head of Luebo station had been informed of 
his wicked proceeding, and he had repeatedly suc- 
ceeded in depriving the Bihe caravans of their slaves or 
their ivory in order to prevent their coming again. I 
also sent a message to Luluaburg, informing Captain De 
Macar of the presen'^e of such a caravan in these parts. 

My instruments of observation caused many diffi- 
culties. In using the prismatic circle, the artificial 
sky refused to act ; the quicksilver, through some care- 
lessness, had become impure, and apparently begun to 

^ Vide Im Innern Afrikas. 



decompose, so that to purify it was almost impossible. 
My aneroid barometers (Wolf had given them into my 
care on my departure) also showed great deviations. 

After leaving the open prairie we again entered 
thickly wooded savannahs, with many stretches of pri- 
ma3val forests. Brooks l^ecame frequent, and were so 
deeply indented that the roads, winding round them, 
passed along across saddles and ridges which made it 
very difficult to keep the track. The inhabitants began 
to resemble the Baluba as regards the arrangement of 
their dwellings. A number of small villages with from 
ten to thirty huts crowned the saddles or summits. The 
inhabitants were seldom found to have guns, and since 
a European had never been in these parts, and the news 
of the war with Katende had perhaps made our name 
formidable, fear was spread wherever we appeared. 
But the roving and savage Baluba, who quickly take 
up impressions, soon lose all fear. 

As the inhabitants desperately opposed the quarter- 
ino" of my people, i.e. the permission to use their houses, 
I had a camp pitched outside the villages. 

On entering the territory of the large tribe of the 
Baqua Putt, the north-east Bashilange, the larger con- 
tinuous primaeval forest commenced, containing many 
elephants and wild boars. It must be by error that 
Stanley in his work ' In Darkest Africa ' has stated that 
traces of buffaloes were found in the huge primaeval 
forest mentioned by him ; and that his men, after many 
days' journeys, had in their excitement shown him the 
first bunch of grass as a mark of the near termination 
of the forest. Where no ai'rass "tows the buffalo cannot 


live, and, considering the slowness of these animals, they 
could not rapidly change their abodes. 

The small stingless bee, incessantly flying into one's 
eyes and nose, was the same nuisance here as in the 
forests on the Cassai. One should take care not to 
squeeze one of these little insects on one's skin, as the 
very aromatic; honey that the bee carries will immedi- 
ately prove a bait for a hundred more bees. 

The cool brooks, whose crystal waters were rippling 
over pure white sand, daily afforded us a refreshing 
bath in the deep shadow of the forest dome ; this is 
most conducive to health, if taken before the evening 

For some days we passed villages which seemed to 
have been deserted some time before ; this we could not 
account for, until at one of them we ascertained by the. 
cadaverous smell of those who had died of small-pox 
that this epidemic had been the cause of the deserted 

On December 5 we again met people who, with 
their arrows strung, were aiming at the van of our 
caravan ; but who were pacified by the gift of some 
beads and afterwards served us as guides. They were 
savage and beggarly fellows, and, like all the people 
of primaeval forests, timid and unsettled. As our guides 
stopped every ten minutes, and always where the roads 
crossed, so as to make greater demands if they were 
to guide us farther, I at length sent them awa}^, and, 
keeping on the broadest road, we soon made a large 
village, whose inhabitants met us, ready for battle. 
Cheering demonstrations soon opened the j^halanx, and, 

L 2 


making use of an old camp of a Bilie caravan, we found 
comfortable shelter and food. The excited Bena 
LuwuUa soon took off their bows and their huge bundles 
of arrows and became accessible and trustful. On our 
approach these natives had shown themselves like fierce 
dogs, obliging us to the utmost patience ; but they 
quickly became confiding and even friendly, which soon 
made us forget our disagreeable reception. 

We pitched our next camp near the Lubi, in the same 
place where, in 1881, I had crossed the river with 
Pogge ; this time, however, I chose the left bank, which 
I wanted to follow down to where the river falls into 
the Sankurru. From the opposite shore some Bassonge 
approached, who from their appearance showed that 
they belonged to a different tribe. I here ascertained 
that Wolf, on sailing up the river, must have mistaken 
the distance : he had not passed this point, and the 
Bassonge said that the white man, whom on account of 
his large beard they had taken for Pogge, had turned 
back farther down. Excepting the sharp turns, which 
are known to have nearly caused the loss of Wolf's 
vessel, the river is navigable forty sea miles above. Near 
Bena ChikuUa there is said to be a fall, up which the 
Bena Lussambo, inhabitants of the Sankurru, go on 
commercial expeditions. 

I here found the home of the swimming lettuce, a 
small plant, met with in great quantities in the high 
seas many miles off the mouth of the Congo. These 
vegetables, resembling miniature heads of lettuce, sprout 
in the boggy source of a small brook ; by the loosening 
of the roots, which hang in the water, they are severed 


from their birthplace, and, following the current, they 
reach the sea after a journey of months. 

Our path took us to the north, to the edge of the 
left Lubi valley. From time to time there opened 
a lovely view of the narrow river valley, 150 metres 

Through its luxuriantly rich ground, the Lubi was 
meandering between thickets of palms and fields. 
Inviting as the tropical vegetation of the river may 
appear, those who know the maze growing from out of 
the dense, richly watered layer of humus, are glad that 
they may admire it from a distance, for ' da unten ists 
fiirchterlich,' pathless, damp, and swarming with 
thousands of insects. 

We stopped with the chief Mukeba, whom we had 
known before, and found that here the Baqua Putt 
had adopted many customs from their neighbours, 
the Bassonge. Such was, contrary to the habit of the 
Bashilange, the tilling of the fields by the men, while 
the women only did the house-work. 

Here 1 saw for the first time glazed vessels of earthen- 
ware, which are made in the following manner. The 
dark red bark of a tree is pounded and mixed with hot 
water ; with this compound, whilst still hot, the ready- 
baked pot is covered. By the time it is cold it is 
turned into a brown-red glaze, which it retains even 
after it is used on the fire. 

On December 8 we pitched our camp in an open 
place, close to the Lubi, opposite the villages of the 
treacherous Bena Ngongo. This tribe, whose insolent 
theft Pogge and I had to complain of in 1881, had 


attacked and robbed Pogge on his return. In the 
fio^ht Poo'oe had lost four of his men, but defeated the 
robbers. They had, undoubtedly with a bad design, also 
tried to induce Wolf to land when passing in the ' En 

A few Ngongo soon appeared at the ferry opposite, 
calling across to ask how much they were to pay for 
their former offence, as they were convinced that I had 
come to punish them. I mentioned my demand of two 
elephant's tusks and ten goats, which they promised to 
bring next morning. But first of all I asked for the 
restoration of one of my Bashilange women whom they 
had kept confined ever since. 

Next morning a chief made his appearance on the 
shore, and showed us two young slaves whom he offered 
as pay in default of ivory, saying that the stolen woman 
was no longer with his tribe, nor did they own any 
ivory ; both were lies, as the natives on our side assured 
me. I consequently refused the offered payment, and 
threatened to make war next day, unless they brought 
the woman before night. The Bena Ngongo, however, 
seemed to feel quite secure, as our search for canoes 
on this side had proved fruitless. 

Discovering distinct traces of canoes among the 
reeds of the opposite shore, I asked my men which of 
them would be ready, covered by our guns, to swim 
over and first of all secure one canoe. This was a very 
hazardous undertaking, the closely wooded water's edge 
opposite being lined by Ngongo archers, and the river 
abounding with crocodiles. In accordance with their 
habit on most similar occasions, Humba and Simao 


advanced, declaring that they would undertake this 
dangerous expedition. I chose Simao, as he was the 
better swimmer, and directed him to go up tlie bank, 
then to swim over and drift along the edge of the reeds 
up to an opening, into which he was to swim and search 
for a canoe. Le Marinel, Bugslag, and myself would 
meanwhile be ready with our rifles, so as to cover Simao 
by our shots, should anything show in the opposite 

Simao did as he was bidden, and, unnoticed by 
the Bena Ngongo, he reached the opening. With a 
knife between his teeth he so worked himself into the 
reeds as to re-appear soon with a 'canoe which, though 
far below, he safely brought to shore. The hostile 
natives had not noticed our design before the canoe was 
in the middle of the stream, beyond the reach of their 
arrows ; the reeds had intercepted their view. 

Complete darkness having set in, we explored the 
opposite shore with the canoe, bringing two more over 
with us. 

Next morning, before daylight, I crossed over, 
accompanied by Le Marinel and 200 men, marching 
through deserted villao-es to the laro-est anions' them, 
situated on a hill 300 metres high. The head of our 
caravan hit upon a troop of Ngongo, two of whom had 
been killed and one wounded. The village being burnt 
down, we walked in several divisions through the moun- 
tainous, closely wooded territory of the Ngongo along 
the river. I heard reports in several places, but when- 
ever we saw a village set on fire we took it as a sign 
that the enemy had been defeated. Towards evenino^ 



all the troops, according to orders, assembled at the 
ferry. Six prisoners, several goats, and many weapons 
were taken, among the latter the large state-axe of the 
chief, and the bis^ drum whose sound could be heard for 


miles. The Bena Ngongo had collected in a large camp, 
which was discovered by two of my troops, but, 
induced by our superior force, they had taken flight 
into the gigantic Mukubu forest which we remembered 
from former times. 


I considered this expedition expedient, since we 
heard everywhere on the way that the Bena Ngongo 
had boasted of the attack on Pogge, and had inter- 
preted as cowardice Pogge's kindness in surrendering 
the prisoners. 

The march to the Bena Jileta was exceedingly ex- 
hausting for our carriers. The deep slopes, thickly 
covered with primaaval forests, so disj)ersed the caravan 
during the uninterrupted march from the early morning 
till about 4 p.m., that the last of my people, with their 
strength nearly wasted, did not reach the camp till dark. 
The Bena Jileta were, on the north, bounded by the 
Bakuba, the Bena Ikongo tribe, with their chief Fumo 
NkoUe, whom Wolf had visited on the Sankurru. 

Our sleep next night was interrupted by a disturb- 
ance in the camp. One of my men was brought in 
wounded. An arrow had pierced his breast with such 
force that the point was bent on one of his ribs. With 
great exertion, they had withdrawn the barbed arrow, 
thus causing the deep wound to bleed profusely, which, 
the arrow being poisoned, was very beneficial. I never- 
theless took the precaution to apply ammonia both in- 
ternally and externally. The wounded man had left the 
camp and gone into a potato-field on robbery intent, 
when, without seeing anyone, he had been pierced with 
an arrow and taken flight. The thieving propensity 
of the Mushilanoje havino- caused the act of violence, I 
did not make the natives responsible for it. They 
thought one of the Bena Ngongo, on whom we had 
made war the day before, had followed us to take his 
opportunity to revenge himself. 


Next day we descended the wooded hills into the 
valley, pitching our camp in a large opening close to the 
confluence of the Lubi and the Sankurru. The dark 
brown Lubi, here of a breadth of 100 metres, joins the 
tawny waters of the Sankurru-Lubilash at this place, 
presenting a tranquilly majestic aspect and opening a 
distant view downward ; very pleasant to the eye after 
the monotonous march during the last few days in 
the prima3val forest. We soon saw the large beautiful 
canoes of the Bena Lussambo coming, strongly manned, 
from the opposite side towards us. 

The brother of the chief Ilunga, named Mutomba, 
who had made friends with Wolf, brought us presents, 
promising to be ready next day with all his canoes to 
let us cross. To make sure, I kept one of them on this 
side, leavino- a sentinel on the shore. 

During the night several canoes approached, coming 
from the Lubi, and filled with armed warriors, probably 
the Bena Xgongo, bent on revenge. They, however, 
took flight as soon as the sentinels be^-an to fire. 

We had now reached an interesting point. The 
mouth of the Lubi marks the north-eastern boundary of 
the Bashilange, tlie north-western of the Ngongo, whom 
we could not number among any of the larger tribes, 
as their language differs from all the tongues spoken 
round about. Xorth of the mouth of the Lubi lived the 
Bakuba, who were, as on the Lulua, mixed with Bakete ; 
east of the Sankurru the Lussambo, who perhaps may 
be numbered among the Bassongo-Mino. It was most 
interesting here to meet again with Bakete. These 
people must have been settled where the Bashilange live 


to-day, and been dispossessed by the latter, who, accord- 
ing to universal tradition, are said to have come from 
the south. Part of the Bakete live in the south-east, 
a little south of Katende, on the right bank of the 
Lulua ; others live north-west of the Bashilange, north 
of the confluence of the Lulua and the Cassai ; and 
here, close to the Sankurru, we again met Bakete. 

The commerce with the Lussambo, on account of 
the unheard-of prices they charged, presented difiiculties 
which caused many disputes in the camp. 

Durino- the next niaht the Bena Na;ono-o again at- 
tempted to approach our camp with a hostile intent, but 
were betrayed to my sentinel b}^ the friendly natives, 
and, findino- themselves discovered, thev took to flio;lit. 





The Lussambo — Cheating — Beautiful river scenery — First news of the 
Arabs — Primaeval forest — Batetela — Batua, the so-called dwarfs 
— Negotiations with the Batua — Nothing but primaeval forest — 
Christmas in the dark — -With the Bena Mona — Murder with poisoned 
arrows — Critical moment — War — Building of a bridge — Lukalla — • 
Hunger — Missed an anaconda — Bad reports about the countries 
before us — -The ravaging slave-hunters — The exterminating Arab — 
Duties of the civilised world in protection of the defenceless Africans 
— Extermination of a great nation — With Lupiuigu and Mona Kakesa 
— Sale of ammunition — The large town of the Peshi desolated. 

According to promise, Mutomba appeared at six 
o'clock with canoes of twenty metres in length by one 
metre two centimetres in width and fonr centimetres 
in depth, which are very dexterously pushed standing 
with the lono: oars that we found in use on the Cassai. 
The end of the tongue of land between the confluence 
of the Lubi and the Sankurru was a suitable place for a 
station which might soon become imjDortant. From this 
point both rivers and the apparently much-frequented 
ferry may be superintended. 

I had the next camp pitched behind a belt of wood 
fifty metres deep, stretching along the shore. While 
we were crossing the river some Bassonge had appeared, 




commissioned by the 
Bena JSTgongo to ran- 
som their prisoners in 
exchange for goats and 

"We ascertained 
here — as Wolf had 
already informed us — 

that the mouth of the Lomami was north of the territory 
of the Lussambo, who only lived along the river, while 
the country farther inland was said to be nothing 
but uninhabited primeval forests. Beyond the Lomami 
lived the Bassongo-Mino, and to the east the savage 
Batetela, behind the forests which extend through many 
days' journeys and are peopled by roaming Batua. 
Everything corroborated Wolf's observations. I bought 
a number of articles beautifully carved in wood, which 
were intended to complete Wolf's collection at Berlin. 
Mutomba engaged himself henceforward to guide us as. 


far as the Batetela country, furnishing us with a number 
of names with such confident assurance that my inter- 
preter Kashawalla asked me to pay his fee beforehand. 
It struck me forcibly that when we started along 
the Sankurru we took a N.N.E. direction, which proves 
that the river between here and Katchich, where I 
discovered it in 1881, must make a strong curve. We 
passed through the dreadful labyrinth of the primaeval 
forest — the guide pretending that there was no better 
road — and, in spite of the people in front constantly 
working with axe and knife, we proceeded but slowly. 
After a short distance Mutomba refused to go on, but 
offered to supply two of his men as guides. With 
astonishing impudence he denied his having promised 
to accompanj?- us ; nor did the presents he had received, 
and which greatly exceeded what was reasonal)le, at all 
•come up to his expectation. Le Marinel was so indig- 
nant at this that he almost knocked tlie man down. 
The latter would have well deserved this punishment, 
but we had to keep in mind that the Bashilange had 
to return the same way, and I had to do my utmost to 
keep their road free from obstacles. Le Marinel's indig- 
nation vividly reminded me of my years of apprentice- 
ship to African travelling ; I had by this time begun to 
resemble my then instructor, the experienced old Pogge. 
We halted, much fatigued, in the middle of the forest 
close to the river, and now it became obvious to us 
whv the cunning Mutomba had brought us this way, 
for soon the canoes of the Lussambo appeared. Once 
more they found an opportunity to sell provisions for 
lovely beads. The chief himself soon put in an 


appearance, saluting us in a pacific way as if nothing 
had happened, which exceedingly amused me and again 
greatly provoked Le Marinel. 

After two days' fatiguing march through primaeval 
forests we reached the first Bassongo or Bassonje, a large 
tribe extending to the Lulua, and apparently related to 
the Wassonga or Wasongora, so that north of the Baluba 
people we were again able to ascertain the existence of 
a widely scattered tribe. It is certainly more difficult 
to ascertain the relationship of these people than of the 
Baluba, because the latter seem to have everywhei-e 
turned out and extirpated the aborigines, the Batua ; 
while amono' the Bassongo and Wasono-ora a great 
many dwarfs are still found, who in many places have 
mixed with the latter. 

From the highly situated village of the Bena 
Wapambue we had an open view into the wide valley 
of the Sankurru, which just here forms a curve at an 
angle of above 90°. The wide, splendid river flows 
past a sandstone wall, nearly 100 metres high, whose 
magnificent and brilliant colouring is relieved by the 
surrounding dark tints of the primeval forest, which, 
with the evening sun shining upon it, seems steeped in 
deep purple. This beautiful scener}^ seen in such a light, 
might be the subject of a magnificent painting. When 
I saw it I greatly regretted, as I had often done in this 
continent, not having an artist with me who might give 
people at home an idea of the splendour of colour that 
may be produced here by the evening lights. 

A lively movement of canoes, most likely caused bv 
our presence, took place on the smooth surface of the 



river, wliicli flowed about 200 metres below us. The 
kind old chief Soka Kalonda, who had visited Pogge and 
me in 1881 when staying with his upper chief Katchich, 
as well as the dense population, who were wholly un- 
armed, behaved exceedingly well. We once more felt 
quite comfortable and without need to take measures 
for our safety, which always depresses the mood of a 
caravan. Our people carried on peaceable intercourse 


with the neighbouring villages, buying provisions at a 
cheap rate. Numbers of people were swarming in and 
out of the camp to see us, and all the chiefs from 
the environs who visited us left us content; as, being 
so well-disposed, we were easily induced to exchange 
presents. Our former deportment and the recent punish- 
ment of the Bena Ngongo had greatly conduced to our 
beins^ so kindlv received. 

The soil here is very rich ; the manioc plants attain 




the size of trees — indeed, we saw manioc roots of the 
thickness of a man's arm. Everything that grew in 
the primeval forest showed a similar luxuriance. The 
river also adds to the variety of food of the Wapambue, 
who offered a great number of different kinds of fish for 


We here learned that the Bassonge chief Zappu Zapp, 
whom Wolf had met on the Sankurru, was not slave- 
hunting, as the latter had supposed, but had been settled 
in this'neighbourhood since 1882, having been turned 
out of his old home by the rapacious expeditions of 
Tibbu Tibb's slave-hunters. We were also told that 
Mona Kakesa and Mona Lupungu had emigrated from 
the south-east, and that only the Bassonge chief Zappu 
stood his ground. This was the first report of inroads 
of the Arabs west of the Lomami, whose extended 
ravaging expeditions we were soon to experience. 

On resuming our march we were first of all con- 
ducted in a north-westerly direction, until, dismissing 
the apparently idiotic guide, I turned farther east, 
following a broad path. Soon we were met by natives 
with provisions, who led us to their village, surrounded 
by thick palm groves and impenetrable hedges. They 
were people of the tribe of the Batempa, who are likewise 
Bassono-e. The remainder of the caravan did not arrive 
till late in the evening, having been delayed by a brook 
thirty metres broad and three metres deep that could 
be crossed only on the trunk of a tree. As was formerly 
the case among the Bassonge, we frequently met here 
with albinos, who with their red and white complexion, 
so different from the negro type, are frightfully ugly. 


Our way led across undulating prairie, bordered 
on the left by immeasurable primeval forest, whicli, 
as our guides said, extended without interruption to 
the Lomami. Behind us we could still distinguish the 
course of the Sankurru by a streak of fog which, as far as 
the eye could reach, covered the ground like a gigantic 
snake, stretching from south to north. The deeply 
indented brooks were bordered by white sandstone ; the 
crystal water was cool and. of pleasant taste. 

On passing some miserable villages of the lean little 
Badingo, we found the population to be evidently a 
mixture of Batua. The Batua are said to live in the large 
priniEEval forest, which we were warned not to enter ; 
the roads, whicli mostly consist of elephant paths, being 
very much grown over, and leading through many 
ravines, which are very difficult to pass. But as I did 
not want to turn too far to the south towards the route 
of my former travels, I took on the 21st a more northerly 
direction, which led us into dark primseval forests 
abounding with lianas, where, before coming upon some 
villages, we had to cut roads which were entirely blocked 
up by felled trees. Close behind these barricades, some 
natives, painted black and red, and ready with their 
bows, stopped our passage. As it was of consequence 
to me to open peaceable intercourse with the timid 
savages and to acquire guides, I halted before we 
reached the villages and pitched a camp. The people 
called themselves Quitundu, also Betundu, and the 
village was called Backashocko. They belonged to the 
Batetela, mixed with Bassonge who had fled into the 
forests. The shape of the huts was like the Batetela's : 

M 2 


small stems, rudely shaped to a point, were roughly 
joined by trellis-work and covered with grass. Hides 
and stuffs made from bark covered the hips of the 
Betundu, whose hair, plaited in two or more stiff tails, 
stood off their heads like horns. 

I was greatly pleased to see in the afternoon some 
Batua of pure quality, real beauties. The people were 
short, of a brown-yellowish colour, or rather light 
yellow, with a brown shadowing. They were long- 
limbed and thin, though not angular, and wore neither 
ornaments, paintings, nor head-dresses. I was chiefly 
struck with their beautiful and clever eyes, lighter than 
those of the Batetela, and their delicate rosy lips, by no 
means pouting like those of the negro. The demeanour 
of our new friends, whom I treated with particular kind- 
ness, was not savage like that of the Batetela, but rather 
timidly modest, I may say maidenly shy. The little men 
on the whole reminded me of portraits of the Bushmen 
of the south of this continent. Their arms consisted of 
small bows and delicate arrows, which, before using, 
they dip into a small calabash filled with poison which 
they carry fastened in their belts. 

By means of great patience and a continual en- 
couraoini:^ smile, and by forcino- mv voice to the most 
gentle intonation I could manage, I succeeded in 
communicating with them, and catching some of their 
idiomatic expressions, which entirely differed from those 
of the other tribes. Amongst others it struck me that 
here, in the midst of the Batetela, who for the word 

* fire ' have the term ' kalo,' they had the expression 

* Kapia,' the same as our Bashilange, with whom they 


have a certain softness of language in common, some- 
thing of the singing modulation of our Saxons. Does 
not this circumstance also correspond with my suppo- 
sition, that the Bashilange, the most northern of the 
Baluba people, must be largely mixed with Batua ? In 
the same way I felt justified in the above-named suppo- 
sition by the similarity of the chief pigment, their delicate 
frame, their rather long limbs, &c. 

For each word the Batua told me I gave them a 
bead, in giving them which I had to be careful not to 
touch them, for my coming near them made them start 
with fear. Bugslag approached them, kindly talking 
the while, armed with a long pole which he raised 
behind one of the dwarfs ; then he suddenly made his 
hand oiide down until he touched the dwarf's head. As 
if struck by lightning, the little savage took to his heels ; 
but we succeeded later on in taking the measurements of 
some Batua who came to visit us, all varying from 1.45 
to 1.40 metre. I never saw any women among them. 
The difference between the young and the old men was 
very striking. While the young people, with their 
rounded figures, their fresh complexions, and above all 
their graceful, easy, quiet movements, made an agree- 
able impression, the old might literally be called pain- 
fully ugly. The reason of which seems to be the poor 
food and the savage and roving life in the primo3val 
forest. In consequence of their extreme leanness, the 
deeply wrinkled skin of the body assumed the colour 
of parchment. The long limbs were perfectly withered, 
and the head appeared disproportionately large on 
account of the thinness of the neck. The people 



conversed rapidly and with much emphasis : the young 
greatly respecting the word of the old. 


Here, as I had everywhere occasion to observe, 
the Batua were, on the whole, not so much despised 


by the Bassonge tribes as by the Bakiba ; they were 
very much feared on account of the poison of their 
arrows, which was said to be very fatal in its con- 
sequences. We were told that the Batua were soon 
going to kill the powerful chief Zappu Zapp, who 
had made himself master throughout this neighbour- 

The real home of the Batua is the vast dark primaeval 
forestj which in all seasons yields a variety of fruits — 
perhaps only known to and eaten by them — roots, fungi 
or herbs, and especially meat, the latter chiefly of lesser 
and lower animals, as rats, nocturnal monkeys, bats, 
a number of rodentia, many of which may be un- 
known, now and then a wild boar, a monkey, and by 
chance even an elephant. Other game is not found in 
the primaeval forest, but of smaller animals there is all 
the more abundance. Caterpillars, cicadas, white ants, 
and chrysalises also offer an abundant change to the 
Mutua (singular form). 

Henceforward we frequently met Batua, without, 
however, being able to make any observations, the little 
folks being too much reserved to come forward at all. 
On the morning of our departure, some Batua ap- 
proached me with a trifling present of manioc roots, 
and when I smilingly refused it, they pursued me, im- 
ploring me to accept it ; upon my granting their wish, 
they went away contented. On the previous day I had 
given these Batua some small presents in the hope of 
augmenting my stock of words ; they evidently acted 
in this way under the impression that my presents, if 
they did not return them, would give me some power 


over them. Such mistrust is quite a mark of the 
genuine savage. 

The deep quiet of the primasval forest, which con- 
tinually put obstacles in our way, thus causing much 
work and trouble, was scarcely interrupted by the note 
of a bird. I rarely remember to have heard the piercing 
cry of the helmet-bird of an evening, or the noise pro- 
duced by the rustling wings of the rhinoceros-bird. 
Only the white ants were incessantly making a rustling 
sound at their work. Any attempt at astronomical 
work had to be abandoned under this never- opening 
leafy roof. 

In the place where the Lomami and the Sankurru 
separate, we found that, though they still called them- 
selves Betundu, the natives' huts differed in shape. 
They were of the same shape as we had formerly seen 
among the Bassonge, which indicated that the latter, 
who had fled from the south, were predominant here. 
During the night, apprehending an attack on our part, 
the Betundu left the villages in our vicinity. The 
brutal savageness of these forest people induced me to 
command that each man of the caravan should carry 
his own gun, and not, as the Bashilange frequently did, 
fasten it to the bao-aaoe or oive it to the women to 
carry. Our good sons of the hemp did not present a 
very warlike appearance. They chiefly preferred to 
proceed on their way in continual chatter, the large 
hemp-pipe on their backs, sticks in their hands, and 
entertaining the idea, very flattering to me, that Kabassu 
Babu would take care of them, and that under his 
guidance they would come to no harm. 


First among the more important brooks which fall 
into the Lomami was the Luidi, which I had crossed near 
its source with Pogge. Want of food began to be felt 
by my large caravan, the scanty population of this forest 
only cultivating their own necessary food in the small 
clearings, which were, with great difficulty, denuded of 
roots. The purchase of provisions was likewise made 
difficult by the savageness of the Betundu. They took 
an endless time to decide whether or not they would give 
anything for the price offered. A piece of cloth went 
from hand to hand. It almost irritated us to watch the 
intercourse of these savages amongst each other. Like 
wolves, they contended for some article that attracted 
their fancy. Their every movement was passionate, their 
glance shy ; their demeanour resembled that of a wild 
beast in its cage. In truth, these people had grown up 
as it were in a cage, for this vast primaeval forest, which 
never permits a glim^^se of the sky, can be compared to 
nothing else ; the horizon is narrowed to very short 
distances. A chief, who during the sale was on the 
point of darting his spear at one of my people, was 
thrown down by the ever-ready Simao, the gallant 
swimmer of the Lubi ; he (Simao) broke his spear, and 
did not let him go until he had "iven him a sound 
thrashing. I am sorry to say that this did not tend 
to induce them to bring more provisions ; they even 
threatened to bring the Batetela down upon us. 

We plodded on and on in the dark through the 
villages of the Bena Piari Kai, the Balonda and Bakialo, 
where, after the flight of the natives, w^e were forced to 
take what provisions we could find in the huts and fields. 


But even this, added to the many roots and fruits which 
the Bashilange fetched from the forest, provided us only 
with the barest necessaries. 

Now, following the only road, we turned farther 
south, and on the 2oth we kept Christmas, the festival 
of the light of Christianity, in the midst of the dark 
primseval forest and dark paganism. 

The natives' manner soon became timid and savage, 
to such a degree that there was no possibility of getting 
hold of any name. Those we questioned were contend- 
ing about some present, quarrelling and fighting like 
ravenous dogs, and we could get nothing out of them. 
Here we found the most wonderful articles used as head- 
dresses. One of them was quite consonant with canni- 
balism, being withered fingers cutofi'at the .second joint; 
these, fastened to wooden pins, pointed upwards from 
out of the thick mass of hair. As I had formerly 
repeatedly found among many tribes of anthropophagi, 
they cut off and throw away the fingers as well as the 
toes before beoinninsf their loathsome feast. 

At length, on the 2Gth, the dense forest was ever 
and anon interrupted by clearings. In the evening, after 
a thirteen days' march through the primaeval forest, we 
joyfully greeted an open space. We encamped at the 
boundary of the Bena Mona tribe, close to the village 
Kiagongo on the river Lobbo, with its great volume of 
water. It was long since we had last heard the leopard's 
voice durinix the nioht ; it was a week since we had 
last seen goats, as the inhabitants of the wood rear the 
fowl as their only domestic animal. We had done now 
with always being caught by straggling plants or roots. 


with incessantly creeping and squeezing between trees 
and trunks, with chmbing steep slopes, and stopping to 
cut our way with the axe. Our clothes and those of our 
people were nothing but rags ; many of our Bashilange 
had even been compelled to procure skins, the bits of 
cloth on their hips not even affording the most necessary 
covering. The fugitive natives did not return, though 
they kept near. 

According to one of my Bashilange who had climbed 
a palm to gather nuts, some natives were shooting at a 
target, and were only scared away by the appearance 
of my people in search of food. We had to possess 
ourselves of victuals, as there was no one there to 
sell them, and my people were quite exhausted by their 
starvation in the forest. In the night we were wakened 
by screaming and vigorous shooting, and on my arriving 
on the spot to prohibit useless firing in the dark, two 
wounded Bashilange were brought to me. One had 
been struck by an arrow, which had entered the joint 
of his knee ; the other, a woman, had only her arm 
grazed. After applying ammonia, the wound of the 
latter was dressed and effectually cured. The man, 
however, after Le Marinel had succeeded in withdraw- 
ing the barbed arrow, which was quite bent, died in 
dreadful convulsions five minutes after being wounded. 
We thus . learned the powerful effects of the native 
poison. On the same night we buried him and a 
Mushilange who had died of inflammation of the luii^s 
in the middle of the camp, in the hope that the natives 
might not find a trace of the grave and have the 
triumph of having killed one of our party ; and, on 


the other hand, we wished to prevent the corpses pro- 
vidincf them with a welcome meaL 

Early in the morning we started, and soon met 
twenty armed men who stopped our passage, ready to 
throw spears or shoot. In spite of last night's treachery 
I began to negotiate with them, since I wanted to learn 
at last where we were, and what direction we had to 
take in order to avoid the large primosval forest which 
was looming round about us. The Bena Mona were 
induced to walk on before us, and I succeeded, though 
with great difficulty, in preventing my indignant soldiers 
and Bashilange from firing at them. Armed men meet- 
ing us incessantly, the leading troop increased more 
and more. 

The outward appearance of the Bena Mona reminded 
us of the Bassongo-Mino ; they were tall, slight, and 
yet muscular, and, like the latter, chiefly wore clothes 
made from the palm, dyed black,^ with the same little 
handkerchiefs as a head-dress. They were mostly 
armed with strong bows and large bundles of long 
arrows, very rarely with a spear, and they frequently 
carried beautiful knives and the war-axes known to us 
from the Bassonge. The people were savages without 
a fixed abode, and were evidently feared as warriors, 
for I remember that the savage Bena Mona were often 
mentioned with great awe. 

We soon saw that our guides were moving on 
towards one of the largest villages on the summit of a 
hill in front of us, a place that seemed suitable for 

' A beautifid black colour is given to all materials, including Avood, 
by burying the article in question for a certain time in the boggy ground 
at the source of certain brooks. 



action, as from the behaviour of the savagre Bena Mona 
and the excitement of my people it had become obvious 
to me that we should not oet off without beinsf com- 
pelled to use force. Before reaching the village, shots 
were actually fired at the rear of the caravan, which did 
not keep me from proceeding onwards and upwards 
until the report was brought from behind that Bugslag 
had been cut off with the rear. I made Le Marinel halt, 
let the caravan close in, and with a few of the soldiers 
turned back ; but presently I met Humba, who informed 
me that the difficulty at the back was settled, and that 
Bugslag was marching on. At the same time I saw from 
the dark clouds of smoke that my soldiers, after repulsing 
the pursuing enemy, had set the farms on fire. Bugslag, 
as I learned later, had been in the act of buying a 
fowl from a native whom he met on the road, and while 
he was bargaining, an approaching troop had shot an 
arrow at him. My party had at once returned the 
attack, and the natives, leaving eight of their people 
mortally wounded behind them, had retreated to their 
village, whither they were pursued by my people. 

In spite of the enemy's having increased in the van to 
above 100 men, I o-ave the siaiial to march on. The 
guides, who had not learnt what had occurred behind, 
were continually running before us, evidently delaying 
a further attack until their numbers should be a match 
for our forces, which they could now survey. About 
200 warriors lay in wait at the entrance of the village, 
and when our o-uides had come to an agreement with 
them, negotiations, unintelligible to us, were carried on 
without our beino- able to move forwards. 


Naturally the caravan gradually collected, forming 
a crowd, at tlie van of which Le Marinel and I 
were halting on our bulls, ready for battle, while 
Buo-slasf was in the rear. The women, according to 


their nature, had crouched together in the midst of the 
crowd like a scared flock of sheep, while those who 
carried arms had put down their loads and stood ready 
towards the outside. Armed people incessantly drew 
near from all sides, and in a short time we were closely 
hemmed in. The natives, ready with their bows and 
arrows, and their spears, were yet undecided as to 
what they had better do, while my people were waiting 
for the word to fire. Whichever party were to use 
their arms first must be successful ; neither spear nor 
arrow could miss our dense crowd at two metres dis- 
tance. A shot from our guns would likewise be sure 
to hit one of the savages, closely surrounding us as 
they did, and, so as not to miss the advantage of being 
the first, I was on the point of giving the command to 
fire, when the circle in front of me opened a little, and 
an elderly man, who, like the formerly-mentioned Bas- 
songe chief, called himself Zappu Zapp, walked up 
to me. 

I told him that I intended to encamp farther on, 
and that, if his people were to bring fowls or victuals 
generally, the Bena Mona might earn many a fine piece 
of cloth and many a bead before the day was over. I 
was in hopes that the chief, with the object of waiting 
for a larger number of his party, would give us this 
respite, which was necessary to me that I might pre- 
pare for battle, and particularly that I might distribute 


the dwindling ammunition. My haughty tone, and 
especially my repeated laughter while conversing with 
Le Marinel, may have conveyed to the natives the im- 
pression that I did not regard them as so very formidable. 
During the conversation I had my gun ready before 
me on the saddle, the muzzle directed to the chief and 
my finger on the trigger, so that at the least sign of 
their using a weapon, my vis-a-vis would have fallen. 

The whole crowd now began to move, and on dif- 
ferent roads to the right and left messengers were 
despatched, probably only to call the neighbours for the 
impending good catch. I had arrived close to the place 
where I wanted to halt when again violent shooting was 
heard at the end of the rather lenothened caravan where 
Bugslag was riding. It was now all over with our pacific 
intrigues, for those running in front and at our side 
seized arms, and arrows shot past, so that I even laid 
low some of those who were in front. The rest I left 
to Le Marinel at the van, hurrying backward myself, 
since the full force of the Bena Mona seemed to be at- 
tacking us. The firing ceased once more before I reached 
the rear, and, finding a load of cartridges in the caravan, 
I opened it and sent ammunition to Le Marinel and 
Bugslag. Only at intervals shots were fired at the Bena 
Mona, who were fleeing in all directions. Then clouds 
of smoke were seen ascending everywhere — a sign of the 
presence of the Bashilange. 

I now gave the signal to close in, aiad, in order to get 
out of the reach of the hostile villao'es scattered round 
about us, I marched on unassailed. Still reinforce- 
ments of savages advanced in crowds, who, on our 


approach, turned and fled. On the way we passed a 
village nearly 2,000 metres long, deeply shaded by oil 
palms, where our people, to their great delight, found 

On account of the intense heat I encamped near the 
edge of a brook in a place which could easily be surveyed. 
According to rumour about twenty natives had been 
killed, while on our side only wounds were reported. I 
had the camp closed entirely, placing concealed outposts 
round about, so as to protect ourselves during the night 
from a treachery similar to that of the preceding day. 
Towards evening troops of natives were seen everywhere 
near, but, taught by Le Marinel and Bugslag's rifles, 
they kept at a safe distance. In a large circle 
round the outposts I had fires of dry wood kindled, 
which lighted the foreground within fifty feet through- 
out the night. Consequently our night's rest was 
only disturbed through the noise I made in waking 
some sleeping outposts when visiting the sentinels. 

At the first dawn we started, and turned our backs 
on the country of the unfriendly Bena Mona. We soon 
reached a labyrinth of villages again, which, however, 
were deserted ; but, the way leading too much to the 
south, we turned and found another open road to the 
east, which messengers whom we had sent out for the 
purpose on the previous day had not found. One 
never can rely on Bantu negroes, even the best of 
them, and a European, travelling with such people, has 
to be always at hand himself, if he wants to feel con- 
vinced that important work is being properly carried out. 
In spite of yesterday's excitement, I had found many an 


outpost asleep at night, and even my best men liacl over- 
looked the large open road to the east. The beautiful 
broad path on the open ridge of hi]ls made marching a 
real enjoyment after our experiences in the primaeval 

After fatiguing labour we succeeded in building a 
bridge across the Lukulla, which, in a succession of 
falls, rushed along over rubble stones. As the trunk 
thrown across made great caution necessary, the cross- 
ing lasted until evening. Twice some of the jDeople 
tumbled off the bridge ; they were rescued, but lost 
their guns and our provision box, containing our whole 
stock of Crocker}^ and our last bottle of brandy. I 
myself ran down stream, and diving, searched for the 
hamper, but in vain ; only by chance I recovered one 
of the guns. The Bena Mona had been shrewd enough 
to consider the crossing of the river as a favourable 
moment for an assault ; but as on their march they 
lighted upon a barricade of trees, by which as a forti- 
fication I had joined two jungles, where I had placed a 
sentinel, they turned before they were fired at. 

We Europeans, having been without rest day and 
night lately, with very scanty food, felt great bodily 
weakness, though excitement kept us alive. Our cara- 
van began to suffer* very much, the famine having 
lasted too long already. A great deal of illness pre- 
vailed in consequence of the poor nourishment. Some 
of the men staggered with hunger and weakness while 
marching ; and unless we came upon inhabited districts, 
the open savannah woidd be more ominous than the 
primoaval forest, where our people had after all found 


many fruits and fungi to satisfy tlieir craving hunger. 
In such districts it is by no means easy to maintain a 
body of nearly 900 people. On setting out I had calcu- 
lated upon the same state of affairs which I had for- 
merly experienced with Pogge scarcely one degree 
farther south, and which would have made it possible 
even to travel with 10,000 men. The marrow of palms 
was now nearly our exclusive food, but even this was 
obtained only with the greatest difficulty. In the first 
place the strong tough tree had to be felled, after which 
with great trouble the heart of the tree, which is under 
the crown, had to be cut out with an axe. 

The Bena Mona, who inhabit this barren country, 
are by nature a very wicked tribe ; I may say they 
were the first nation which, still unmolested by slave- 
hunters, opposed us in so decidedly hostile a manner. 
The Bena Mona had, it is true, already experienced the 
ravages of white men, in the shape of the Arabs, who 
were in possession of guns ; and it is possible that they 
put the same construction upon our motives, and that 
this gave birth to their hostile disposition towards us. 

On account of the number of cross roads and the 
dark primaeval forest looming before us to the east and 
north, I marched southward up the Lubefu river. 
We hoped soon to make a camp in a place where we 
might get food, for the spectre of hunger was seriously 
menacing my gradually weakening caravan. On the 
29th we reached some villages of the Bassange, which 
we well remembered to have passed before. Since the 
rumour of our skirmish with the Bena Mona had pre- 
ceded us, the natives fled before us, taking everything with 



them ; and only a few of my people succeeded in possess- 
ing themselves of trifling quantities of food, which, in the 

had been 
le ft behind. 
Our attempts 
to supply our 
wants by the chase 
remained without suc- 
cess, the country being 
bare of game. My men dis- 
/^/ covered a huge p3'thon snake 
which they found coiled up in a 
bush, and fetched me to shoot it, the 
Bashilange being fond of its flesh. I 
pointed the muzzle of my gun at the head of the 
anaconda at a distance of one metre, before, awaking 
from her apathy, she noticed me. I aimed and missed 

N 2 


tlie head of the gigantic reptile, which, after the re- 
port, disappeared in the thicket like lightning. The 
Bashilange, who knew the snre aim of mv gun, regarded 
my bad shot as a fetish of the Bena Mona. 

"We could not be far off my route of IS SI when we 
reached some provisionally l^uilt villages of the Bassonge 
under their chief Mona Kassongo. Kassongo had fled 
here from some hordes of Tibbu Tibb's, and rambling 
patrols, making use of the dark night, were returning to 
their former homes, to fetch what food they could from 
their fields. At any rate, we got a few provisions, which 
gave us hope and courage for the future. Kassongo 
came to see me with about sixty gun-carriers, complain- 
ing of the dreadful visitation of the southern districts 
by Tibbu Tibb's hordes. He told me that the powerful 
tribe of the Benecki was entirely annihilated, and that 
Mona Lupungu, my former old friend, had turned to 
the south, where, with the other greatest chief of the 
Kassonge, Mona Kakesa, he had taken refuge in the 
Baluba country from the murdering and devastating 
expedition of the Arabs. Kassongo had been here for 
two months, hoping for the departure of the slave- 
hunters, and always ready to flee to the north, towards 
the primoBval forests of the Batetela. We got so many 
contradictory reports from all directions about the war 
which — as I well knew — was raging in the southern 
countries, that we did not know what to believe. 
We no longer found regular villages, but only scat- 
tered troops of different Bassonge tribes, who, partly 
knowing me, supplied us with provisions as well 
as thev could under their straitened circumstances. 


Chiefs visited me, bringing presents of slaves, request- 
ing that later on I would exchange them for goats, they 
not being able to provide me Tvith a goat, nor even a 

I learned, as a matter of great anxiety, that many of 
my people had sold powder and percussion-caps in order 
to obtain provisions. This was almost the only article 
of exchange demanded by the poor hunted natives, as 
being their only means to defend themselves against 
their formidable enemies. 

The Xew Year's Eve of 1886 found us three Euro- 
peans of the caravan thinking of the future with great 
apprehension. Le Marinel, in honour of the day, and 
in order to divert our grave anxiety, brought forth 
a bottle of rum — which, however, in our present 
weakened state of health agreed with us very badly. 
Full of care, we saw the sun rise on the first day of 
the year of 1887. To the north and east loomed the 
dark primaeval forest, whose terrors were stiU fresh in 
our memories ; to the south and west everything was 
said to be depopulated for a long distance. Eound 
about us were encamped 900 people, weak with starva- 
tion and fatigue. Our o-oods were of no avail, nor 
even our numbers, for eatables were nowhere to be 
found or bought. In low spirits, therefore, we continued 
our journey to the east-south-east, as far as Kafungoi, 
where we found Pogge's and my route. But how 
much altered I Where formerly thousands of Benecki, 
the inhabitants of the strikingly beautiful and rich 
town, had joyfully welcomed us ; where we had 
revelled in eniovmeuts such as an African countrv, in- 


habited by industrious natives, has to offer ; where in 
peace and amity we had been conducted from village to 
village — we now found a waste, depopulated by murder 
and conflagration. The same huge groves of palm trees, 
which formerly had marked the town of the happy 
Benecki, welcomed us to their shadow. Only dismal 
silence, here and there interrupted by the chirping of 
the ploceid^, had given way to the welcoming sounds 
of the former harmless inhabitants. The niches in the 
palm thicket on both sides of the straight roads, which 
three years ago had been filled with the tidy farms of 
the Benecki, were now overgrown with grass of a 
man's height, whilst here and there a burnt pole, a 
bleached skull, and broken crockery were reminis- 
cences of the existence of our former friends. Where 
were the thousands and thousands of the industrious 
people who through their great numbers seemed 
secure from any hostile assaults ? I shuddered with 
sadness at this spectacle, at the remembrance of the 
happiest days of our first journey, which we had enjoyed 
with the then quite unknown good-natured savages. 
I turned quite hot with a sense of wrath and internal 
revolt against the murderous breed of avaricious slave- 
hunters who had called forth this dreadful devastation. 
Among the palms in some banana thickets, which had 
escaped the destructive hands of the gangs of robbers, 
my people fortunately found some potato fields covered 
with grass, where they dug out some huge potatoes, 
which provided them with most necessarj^ food. Palm 
nuts, the marrow of palms, sweet potatoes and unripe 
bananas were to form our onh" food for some time to 

jMMiJlkJljH LiLi rJj .J A 



come, for during many days' journeys we only found a 
repetition of what we had obtained at Kafungoi. 

I must anticipate in order to tell, what I learned 
later, how this dreadful fate had come upon countries 
once so happy. The Arab Tibbu Tibb and Famba, the 
latter of whom had formerly resided west of the Lomami, 
intent on trade rather than robbery, had fallen out about 
the right to these districts. The far more powerful Tibbu 
Tibb had sent his people, reinforced by hosts of canni- 
bals of the Bena Kalebue tribe, across the Lomami to 
possess themselves of the countries as far as the Sankurru. 
Knowing the Arab Hamed bin Mohammed, called Tibbu 
Tibb, from former times, I am convinced that, had he 
come here himself, the consequences of the expedition 
would not have been so terrible as they were ; he, how- 
ever, only sent his subordinates as commanders. Though, 
his religion permitting it, the Arab is regardless of the 
natives who are trying to defend their goods and chattels 
and their liberty with their weapons, yet in general he 
is not capable of such designing wickedness as those 
slaves of his, the half-blood brutes from the coast, who, 
besides the tribute which they have to pay to their master, 
provide for themselves by stealing slaves wherever 
they can. They dare not intercept ivory, but they 
manage to hide slaves, and as long as their master is 
satisfied with the booty of the expedition, he little 
cares how his people look after themselves. The Arab 
generally is more shrewd than the half-blood, who seems 
to have inherited only the worst qualities of the two 
tribes to whom he owes his existence. 

The former wants to make the native princes tribu- 


tcaiy to himself, while the latter is only intent on obtain- 
ing as many slaves as possible, never caring what will 
ultimately become of the devastated countries. The fault 
of originating these outrages lies unquestionably with 
the Arab, for only his initiative made it possible to 
advance, to subjugate, and to depopulate more and 
more. Therefore, if the aim be to benefit and to pro- 
tect the poor defenceless native, the Arabs in these 
countries should be extirpated root and branch, before 
they obtain a force for which we Europeans are no longer 
a match ; as was the case in the south, owing to the 
distance and the hostile climate. It was high time that, 
soon after the evil days of which I am speaking here, 
severe measures should be taken against this African 
plague. I myself had great satisfaction in being called 
to suppress the East African rebellion, or to strike the 
first blow at the coast from whence the above-mentioned 
outrages chiefly proceed. 

Although the English and German fleets lessen the 
export of slaves, which are chiefly transported from these 
districts of Central Africa, the future slave trade, and with 
it the slave hunt, will be cut ofi" only by garrisoning the 
coasts and the great commercial roads. Now, while I am 
writing this, much has been done ; but the slave traders' 
centres of operation, Tabora, Ujiji, and Nyangwe in the 
interior, are still slave markets; Tibbu Tibb is still 
livino- ; Muini Muharra and other slave-hunters are still 
raging and destroying the natives, who, armed as they are 
only with bows and spears, are defenceless against them. 
Much still needs to be done to protect the liberty and the 
lives of millions of harmless creatures ; it is still possible 


that the Arabs will be reinforced from the Soudan, south 
of the Equator. But Germany is already prepared to 
render further protection, is ready to check a danger 
threatening from the north ; and I may hope that, before 
this expression of my deepest indignation can be perused 
by the reader, I shall have again taken up my work, 
whose goal, the deliverance of Equatorial Africa from 
the thraldom of the Aral^s, has become my life's object. 

The progress of this war to the knife has been as 
follows : 

Mona Lupungu had paid tribute to Famba, instead 
of, as was requested of him, to Tibbu Tibb, and, refusing 
to pay the latter also, he had been attacked and driven 
away. He had retreated to his friend Mona Kakesa, 
and being pursued even here by Tibbu's hordes, those 
two, after the loss of many lives, emigrated to the south 
on the boundary of the Belande, leaving many prisoners 
as slaves in the hands of their assailants. The hosts of 
Arabs, never minding their enemies, but only eager to 
obtain slaves and ivory, proceeded to the Benecki, who 
at every approach of the robbers fled into the forests. 
The Zappu Zapp of the west had, as we know, fled to 
the Sankurru, and the Bassange had escaped to the 
north, where we were now encamping, after many use- 
less attempts to defend themselves, in order to hide, if 
necessary, in the large, protecting primaeval forest. 

The Benecki, not wishing to abandon their rich 
villages and fields, returned every time the rapacious 
troop turned their backs, and began to cultivate 
the ground again, but as soon as the fields were 
read}^ for harvest the vagabonds reappeared, their 


expeditions being greatly dependent on the food they 

In this manner tlie pacific tribe of the Benecki was 
attacked several times in succession ; many of the 
bravest, who defended themselves, were killed, many 
women and children were transported, while the greater 
number took refuge in the forest. The necessary conse- 
quence of the repeated devastation of the fields was a 
dreadful famine, with small-pox, brought in by the 
Arabs, following at its heels. War, slave-robbery, 
famine, and pestilence had actually been able com- 
pletely to depopulate this densely populated territory, 
with its towns extending through many days' journeys ; 
and we learned that only a dwindling remnant had 
taken refuge with Zappu Zapp on the Sankurru. 

On January 3 we passed the Lubefu, of 60 metres 
breadth by a water-level of 0-3 metre; the bed was 
cut 50 metres deep into reddish sandstone, with almost 
perpendicular slopes. At the place of crossing deep 
quicksands became dangerous for our bulls. Whenever 
we gained a height after leaving the narrow valley of a 
water-course, we were admitted in the shade of a long- 
stretched palm forest, where formerly had been a town 
of the Benecki. We encamped in one of these, once 
the town of Kifussa. Each member of the caravan had 
to bring into the camp the food he had found on the 
way. Bananas, nearly over-ripe, thickets of pineapples, 
remains of former potato fields, and palm nuts had been 
found in the arable land and gardens of the Benecki. 

Mona Lupungu, patrols of whose camp also were 
loafing about in the desolate towns in order to get pro- 


visions, sent to request me to visit liim, wliich I at first 
refused, chiefly with the view of preventing my Bashi- 
lange from selUng their arms in exchange for ivory, and 
thereby lessening the force of my caravan. During the 
whole time my mind was busy in trying to ascertain 
whether it would be possible to punish Tibbu Tibb's 
troop, w^hich was said to be encamped on this side of the 
Lomami, and whether this would be judicious and con- 
formable to my commission. If I had had the same 
number of coasters as Bashilange, who, however, with 
their guns behaved very well to the savages who were 
only armed with bows and arrows, the clearing of the 
districts from the rapacious gangs of Arabs might no 
doubt have been effected. But with my Bashilange, who, 
into the baro;ain, were so much weakened with hunoer as 
to be hardly equal even to the fatigues of the slow march, 
it would scarcely have been advisable for me to take up 
the cudgels in a successful combat against the slaves 
and coasters of the Arabs who had been trained for war. 
Even if I had succeeded in subduing one of these hordes, 
I should soon have had to give way to the superior force 
and the more efficient warriors, and so have lost more 
than I had gained. Under the prevailing circumstances 
I could do better with the Arabs in peace than in war. 
As I was of opinion that the station in the Upper Congo 
State near Stanley Falls was on good terms with the 
Arabs, and since I knew nothing of the disorders which 
had meanwhile broken out there, I was in hopes of in- 
timidating Tibbu Tibb by threatening to take posses- 
sion of his property in Zanzibar and on the coast. So 
after due reflection, I may say with a heavy heart, 


I had to desist from the plan of immediately supporting 
the poor natives against their tormentors ; but, at any 
rate, I wanted to be as ready for battle as was possible, 
considering the unfortunate condition into which my 
caravan had got through the journey of the last few 
weeks, and threatened, therefore, to punish them 
severely for any sale of arms and ammunition. I 
should have greatly desired to be able to provide each 
tribe oppressed by the Arabs with a number of arms 
in order to defend themselves against those robbers. 

Le Marinel and I did our utmost to hunt for 
some game, but in vain ; our prolonged and fatiguing 
hunting expeditions only enabled us to bag some 

On the 4th, twenty men armed with guns approached 
continually shooting, bringing me a present of seven 
slaves. These were followed by Mona Lupungu, a 
Bassonge prince who, in 1882, had received us very 
hospitably. He had hastened hither to fetch us to his 
camp, a distance of three days' journey. He was much 
altered in his outward appearance : he also had been 
ill with small-pox, which had greatly disfigured him, 
besides causing the loss of one of his eyes. He was 
likewise changed from his former modest and amiable 
deportment : his constant persecution during the last 
few years had made him restless and savage in a way 
that he had not been formerly. Being greatly urged by 
my Bashilange, I yielded to the chief's request to visit 
him. His companions, with their fine warlike figures, 
though they had likewise grown barbarous during the 
wild doings of the last few years, presented as warriors a 



great contrast to my poor, tliiu, and ragged Bashilange, 
who were filled with some anxiety, knowing that we 
were about to enter a formidable camp, that of Mona 
Kakesa, who was allied with Lupmigo. Another part 
of the caravan were urging us to visit these two, so 
that on their return they should have supplies in this 
district of starvation. Everybody was over-fatigued, 
weakened, and dissatisfied, which was easily to be 
accounted for, and in such a humour that most of 
them would have preferred to return home. In order 
to prevent this I hastened, as fast as my weak people 
were able to follow, to the south of Lupungo. On the 
way we were continually met by armed men, besides a 
despatch party of Mona Kakesa, bringing us maize and 

On the 6th I halted about a kilometre from the 
camp of the two chiefs. Many thousands of people, 
among them a few women, were assembled there ; abouu 
300 were armed with guns, while the others carried 
bows and arrows. The proceedings in this large camp 
were barbarous and wild, as might be expected under 
these warlike circumstances, for a troop of Tibbu 
Tibb's was said to be stationed but two days' journey 
from here in order to attack this camp. The force was 
sure to be very strong, and the Bassonge had quite 
made up their minds not to fight, but to 'flee at the 
approach of the enemy. 

On my asking the two chiefs whether they, in 
alliance with me, would attack the warriors of the 
Arabs, they decidedly declined. JSTor did they think 
that I had been in earnest, for they said the}^ thought 


the white men were friends of the Arabs, and, at any 
rate, much weaker than they. 

As the ample presents of the chiefs consisted in 
articles of food, I granted my caravan a few days' halt. 
We had now reached the southern boundary of the 
vanished tribe of the Benecki, who were related to the 
Bassonge. Only a few hours' distant the villages of the 
Belande, who belong to the Baluba tribe, began ; and 
south of these were the Balungu, under the chief Kas- 
songe Chiniama, whom I had been prevented from visit- 
ing a few months ago by the skirmishes with the Baluba. 
South-west, as far as the Sankurru,the Bilolo,also Baluba, 
were said to live. The country presented great changes 
of scener}^ The ravines of the rivers were bordered by 
deep slopes, showing red laterite, and covered with luxu- 
riant vegetation. The summits of the heights, generally 
pure grass savannahs, were dotted with ruin- like rocks, 
and along the ridges, like gigantic snakes, extended the 
dark groves of palm trees we have mentioned before. 

The warriors of the Bassonge, crowding the camp, 
were daily joined by hundreds of Belande, who carried 
many pedereroes, such as had been brought from the 
west coast by Bihe caravans ; while the weapons of the 
Bassonge were percussion-guns which, before the break- 
ing out of the war, they had obtained through commis- 
sioners of the Arabs. Inferior Arabs, or mongrels from 
the coast, not so powerful as Tibbu Tibb or Famba, 
often gave some guns to more influential chiefs, by 
means of which the latter would hunt slaves for them. 
This was the point, then, where the fire-arms of the west 
and the east met. Farther north, however, they have not 


peneti'ated, the large primaeval forest being a barrier 
to commerce, whose results we had here ample oppor- 
tunity of studying. 

The only food all these warriors revelled in was the 
palm wine, and consequently we had often scenes in 
the camp that led to disputes, several times even to 
hostilities, between our people and the Bassouge. One 
evening after dark — not admitting any strangers after 
this time — I turned out Lupungu, just as he was in 
the act of taking a saddle-bull (about which we had 
been negotiating) into his camp, before our bargain 
was concluded. We soon discovered, as I had appre- 
hended, that a considerable part of the Bashilange had 
sold not only guns but also powder and percussion 
caps, so that nearly all the Bashilange were short of 
ammunition without my knowing it. I was indeed 
indignant at such indiscretion. 

What would have become of us if hostilities had 
broken out among the mostly drunken hosts of warriors ? 
Before the packed-up ammunition had been distributed, 
everything would without question have been lost. They 
had thoughtlessly exchanged percussion caps and powder 
for victuals. In the presence of the Bassonge chiefs I 
had the guilty punished by a thrashing, and distributed 
fresh allowances of forage and new ammunition, which 
henceforward was inspected several times a day. 

I was very glad when the time for starting had come, 
for the hostilities grew more and more numerous and 
violent, and my people in their intercourse with the 
Bassonge warriors became quite intractable. 

I imagined I should be able to carry out my com- 


mission, which required me to arrange the state of affairs 
in the southern Congo State as well as possible, only by 
hindering in some way, or at least restricting, the 
plundering expeditions from Nyangwe, and therefore 
resolved to go straight to the camp of the Arabs, and 
there to decide upon further steps. Considering my 
former footing with the Arabs, I could not but presume 
that in Nyangwe I should get canoes and people with 
whom to go up to the source of the Lualaba and to 
explore the Kamerondo. We therefore set out towards 
the north-east, at first conducted by Lupungu's people. 
We found two more villages inhabited by Belande, before 
reaching the desolate country of the Benecki. 

On the march we found out that the intercourse in 
the camp had been of bad influence on the discipline of 
my people. The villages were completely pillaged by 
the Bashilange and my coasters, and any resistance of 
the natives soon led to acts of violence, which 
fortunately never ended fatally. Bugslag and Le 
Marinel, riding behind, would use a stick, or even a 
pistol, to drive the pillagers out of the farms, and, if 
possible, return the belongings of the natives, who were 
furiously pursuing us. I explained to my people how 
on my part everything had been done to keep them 
from starvation, to protect them from hostile assaults, 
and to avoid hostilities, and how all this had been 
marred by their behaviour. I further told them that 
I had in vain used lashes and fetters to punish offences 
which endangered the safety of the whole caravan 
and all the lives, for which I was responsible ; any 
robbino" from the natives I therefore prohil^ited upon 


pain of death. They all agreed to this, quite seeing the 
necessity of it. 

The vast grass prairie, with its long groves of palm 
trees, here and there showed formations of rivers. Wild 
ducks and little red moor-hens were found in them in 
great numbers, and in the evenings the sandy shores 
were enlivened by hundreds of pigeons which, before 
choosing their night quarters, would come here ta 
drink. Pelicans, herons, and vultures (angolensis) were 
frequent, while larger game was scarce. 

We passed the Mussongai and Tambai, which fall into 
the Lurimbi, a tributary of the Lomami, and entered 
the town of our old friends, the Baqua Peshi, called 
Kintu a Mushimba. This town, five hours' march in 
length, is now likewise a wilderness, again reminding 
us of the terrible fate experienced by the childlike, 
friendly Benecki, who were living so happily but few 
years ago. In some parts of this once gigantic town 
attempts at settlements must have been made since, 
as we found several fields with maize and beans only 
of a few months old. Since our last sojourn here a 
territory has been depopulated extending between the 
5th and 6tli degrees south latitude, and the whole 
length from the Lomami up to the Sankurru — a country 
which, on account of its abundance of water and rich 
soil, was better suited for settlements than any other ; 
a country which, with its prairies, will be some day 
exceedingly well adapted for breeding cattle. 

On the 12th we marched a considerable distance 
along an outstretched lake, which, framed in by only 
a few trees of the willow species, presented a lovely 



picture in the midst of the vast grass prairie. We 
pitched our camp on the edge of the valley of the 
Lukassi. On account of the silence reigning now in 
this district, which had formerly been over-populated, 
some came had been enticed hither, as was testified bv 
traces of buffaloes and elephants and the large horse 


antelope, one of which we chased in vain. Formerly 
game was an unheard of thing in this country. 

We learned that a few kilometres from here east- 
ward, beyond the Lukassi, lay Tibbu Tibb's large camp 
of robbers, incessantly watched over by Lupungu's 
spies, who lived in the thickest part of the forest. 
These spies fearlessly visited us, bringing all the news 
from the hostile camp. A few men in long white 
shirts with turbans on their heads were said to be 
leaders, the principal of whom was called Said. The 


nucleus of the army was formed by many slaves of 
Tibbu Tibb's, who were estimated at 500 m number, 
whilst the troop was completed by a host of Kalebue 
cannibals, who had formerly been defeated by Tibbu 
Tibb and were now compelled to join his army. Most 
of them were without firearms. A few days before, 
these robbers had left their fortified camp — which, 
during their absence, always remained garrisoned — and 
undertaken a pillaging expedition to the south. They 
had returned the day before, and were said to purpose 
staying in the camp for the present, the rich fields of 
this place supplying them with provisions. 





Camp of a troop of Tibbu Tibb's Zanzibaris — Said, the leader of the war- 
like expedition — Said aiming at prisoners in his pistol practice — 
Cannibalism in the camp of the Arabs — Sad condition of my caravan — 
A man rising from the dead — Many sick people — On the Lomami — 
The caravan well-nigh exhausted — The Arabs' form of government — 
Hungry people eating poisonous fruits — Inundations — Everything 
gloomy — Amputations — Some people missing — Bridge formed of 
brushwood— Small-pox — The weakest part of the army left behind — 
Losses — Reports about hostilities between the Arabs and the Congo 
State — Bad prospects — At Nyangwe — Hidden threats— Tibbu Tibb's 
son subjecting me to an examination — Suspicion against me — Famba's 
aid — My Bashilange sent home uninjured — I remain in the Arabs' 
power— Separation from Le Marinel and my caravan. 

Next day we encamped on the Lukassi, called also 
Lukashi and Lukassia, a river of about forty metres in 
breadth and two metres in depth, and, making use of 
an old fish weir and an islet, we, with great difiiculty 
and labour, built a bridge. All the river crossings had 
naturally been destroyed by the Bassonge. On the 
14th we crossed over and pitched a strong camp, since 
for the present we could not judge on what footing we 
should be placed with the slave-hunters. I sent Humba 
and three soldiers down the river, enjoining them to 
approach the camp with caution and to ascertain 
whether pacific intercourse with the vagabonds might 
be effected. 



The bridge which we had built with so much trouble 
was destroyed during the night by the roving natives 
in our rear. 

Anxious about the delay of the patrol, I had waited 
until midnight, when they returned at last, accompanied 
by three people — a man from Zanzibar and two slaves 


\ I 


of Tibbu Tibb's — brincfino' a salaam from Said, the 
second in command, making known to us that this 
war was an expedition to take vengeance on the 
Bassonge for having slain and devoured some of their 
people. Humba told us that on approaching the camp 
they noticed that they were being finally watched and 
hemmed in. The natives ran up to them screaming, and 


brandisliing their arms, and only the shouts of Fickerini, 
my flag-bearer, in Kisuaheh, a language spoken by 
nearly all the Arab slaves, had saved them from being 
killed. They had then been seized, dragged into camp, 
and brought before Said, who after a long conference 
kept two of my people, sending two of his with 
them, who were to return the same night and report 
whether our approach was pacific or not. I was 
astonished that even the man from Zanzibar did not 
cease to distrust us till we had been minutely questioned. 
The reason for this became plain to me much later. 
Til^bu Tibb, I was told, with two white men, probably Dr. 
Lenz and his companion, had some time ago set out for 
the coast ; Juma Merikani and the son of mv old cruest, 
the Sheik Abed, were at Xyangwe. Many of the Arabs 
I had known had succumbed to small-pox. Said, the 
leader of the vagabond troop encamping near us, had 
formerly made Pogge's and my acquaintance. He was 
one of Tibbu Tibb's favourite slaves, whom this shrewd 
Arab had succeeded in making one of his most devoted 
subjects. We were now in the Kalebue country, and 
next day passed two little deserted villages, in one of 
which we came upon seventeen human skulls, grouped 
in a circle. Said's people drew my attention to this as 
a proof that the Kalebue of these parts were terrible 
cannibals, and, therefore, ought to be extirpated. They 
only pretended this to be a motive for this war, the real 
cause of which I mentioned above, for the Kalebue, who 
fought on the side of the Arabs, were cannibals as well 
as the western members of their tribe. Of this we were 
soon to have striking proofs. 



I halted and encamped 800 paces before Said's 
camp, whither thousands of savage warriors were run- 
ning to meet us, full of curiosity, and then, accompanied 
by four men, I went to 
Said to ascertain particu- 
lars. I was surrounded 
by Eastern Kalebue, sav- 
agely brandishing their 
arms and uttering wild 
shrieks ; they were tools 
in the hands of the slave- 
hunters, who were here in 
the suite of the Arabs. An 
Ai^ab mongrel, scarcely 
twenty years old, accom- 
panied by some people 
clad in Arab shirts, came 
to meet me, promising 
with exquisite politeness 
— by which the Arab 
swears until he takes 
up arms — that he would 
do all I wished. He 
regretted that he had not 
been able to send me a 
present of meat, as he had 
not any left for himself. 
Said was in his manner 

almost boyish. His companions were equally civil and 
modest; they did not as yet know my power suffi- 
ciently, and wanted to learn what had brouo-ht me here. 

IX s.vid's camp 


At Said's invitation we repaired to the camp, whicli 
was surrounded by a close barricade of brushwood and 
thorns. At the entrance they had constructed a gate, 
a kind of yoke formed of beams ; on the horizontal 
beams were suspended about fifty chopped-off hands, 
mostly in a state of putrefaction, which smelt terribly ; 
Said, pointing to the hands, merely uttered the word, 
* Cannibals ! ' / 

We sat down before the house of the former chief 
of this village, and Said now began to speak in 
the Suaheli language — somewhat familiar to me — but 
was frequently interrupted by his companions, who 
apparently gave him injunctions in a different language 
as to what he was to communicate to or keep from us. 
Famba at Nyangwe (Juma Merikani), he said, had 
formerly transacted business with Lupungu, before 
whose house we were sitting, though Tibbu Tibb had 
claimed Lupungu as his subject. Lupungu had re- 
peatedly cut off the heads of Tibbu's messengers and 
given them to his Kalebue for a treat. Then the powerful 
Arab had sent Said to punish the rebellious Lupungu 
as well as the warriors of the tributary chiefs Lussuna, 
Lagongo, and Dibue. The former had fled, and not as 
yet reappeared ; they did not exactly know his where- 
abouts, but had received information of his being allied 
with Mona Kakesa and the Belande, and encamping in 
the south-west. 

The boy Said told me he did not know whether he 
was powerful enough to attack the Allies ; he appeared 
to me to be irresolute, I may say almost timid, and by 
no means seemed to deserve the trust put in him by his 


master. In the valley of the Lukassi, on the opposite side 
of the river, I had the day before approached the camp, 
so near that I could distinguish the voices ; while he had 
learned nothing of the building of our bridge or of our 
approach. He might easily have blocked up the bridge 
and kept it from being destroyed, but it seemed to me 
that for the present he wanted to put an end to the war, 
and to rest satisfied with reaping the fields and chasing 
the dispersed natives with a small number of troops. 
Allied with me, he thought he might attack Lupungu ; 
but I made my position clear to him in such a manner 
that he made no further reference to the subject. 

Said returned my visit in the evening, bringing 
forty loads of manioc and maize and five slaves ; several 
great men and chiefs, his subjects, joined him with 
similar presents. Since I wanted to allow my people a 
day's halt, and there was nothing to buy, I requested 
Said to point out the most southern part of the planta- 
tions of Lupungu's former village, so as to abundantly 
supply my followers with maize, manioc, beans, and 
pumpkins. Although we had found sufficient food 
during the last few days to satisfy our craving hunger, 
my people were still very weak, and suffering from 
various diseases, principally foot-sores — a consequence 
of having had scanty food for weeks. 

In Said's camp were at least 3,000 people, who were 
said to have 600 guns. The smell on approaching the 
camp was pestilential, so great a mass of people being 
packed into so small a s^^ace. Said asked for, and 
received, different medicines, such as carbolic acid, 
vaseline, and other simple remedies. In return he 


promised to supply us with guides on our march to 
Fyangwe ; whence, only, could further explorations be 
carried out, I could not count upon my Bashilange 
farther than the Lualaba, they being even now in a con- 
dition that scarcely permitted them to drag themselves 
from place to place. I should then have only a few coast 
negroes and ransomed Baluba, who would not suffice for 
a further expedition up the Lualaba. I was, therefore, 
obliged to try to procure canoes and men at Nyangwe 
from the Arabs, my former friends, so as to proceed 
with my commission. On returning to Nyangwe, after 
exploring the water-courses of the Upper Lualaba, I 
could, without great expense, go to Stanley Fall Sta- 
tion, and thence by the next steamer to the mouth of 
the Congo. 

Li the evening a patrol of about fifty men returned 
from their hunt after natives who were dispersed and 
concealed in the woods. They brought a few prisoners 
bleeding from several wounds. One of Said's people 
had also got an arrow in the upper part of his thigh, 
which had been extracted very clumsily. When Le 
Marinel gave the wound proper treatment, the gallant 
warrior behaved very stupidly. He screamed and 
moaned ; and even Said made much ado of what, for a 
warrior, was but a trifling accident. Some of my people' 
who towards evenino- had taken the wounded man back 
to Said's camp returned literally livid with fear and 
loathing, reporting that Said, the apparently irresolute 
boy, had for a long time practised firing with a revolver, 
making a target of the prisoners, until they had dropped 
down after manv shots. He had then handed over his 


dead victims to his auxiliary troops, who had cut them 
in pieces and dragged them to the fire to serve as their 
supper. This was the army of an Arab who wanted to 
punish natives for cannibahsm ! 

I must say in honour of my Bashilange, whose older 
members had formerly been wont to eat human flesh, 
that when, on our march next day we passed the camp, 
decked out with the putrefied remains of slain human 
beings, they showed disgust and loathing. However, 
they endeavoured to conceal their abhorrence for fear of 
Said's savage warriors, who had got morally low in con- 
sequence of their bodily sufferings. The pitiful appear- 
ance of my people even evoked the scornful laughter 
and contempt of the fat, well-fed warriors of the Arabs ; 
and in fact the asjDect of the withered, long-limbed, bent 
figures, who were scarcely able to carry their guns and 
their hemp-pipe, was not adapted to inspire one with awe 
of their martial worth. 

Our onward journey, being on Said's line of march, 
led through destroj'ed villages, some of whose former 
inhabitants had emigrated whilst others were living 
on the remains of their fields, concealing themselves in 
the thickets. In the first village we met some people 
who, evidently taking us for a troop of Said's, fied to a 
village 500 metres in front of us. Some Bashilange, who 
likewise went thither to search for victuals, were received 
with arrow-shots, and soon after the natives them- 
selves burnt down their village and disappeared. At 
the village where we were encamped we made some 
interesting discoveries. In the centre stood a war 
fetish, a man's figure of 0-7 metre height, with points 


of arrows stuck in like bristles and besmeared with 
blood, so that our two little terriers showed much 
ethnographical interest in the fetish. In some houses 
lay corpses, and near the village, there being want of 
building materials for our camp, the huts were simply 
lifted off the corpses and jDut up in the camp. After 
being nearly three hours on the spot one of these ap- 
parent corpses suddenly raised himself, looking round 
him wonderingiy and asking for food. The man seemed 
to be dangerously ill and near starvation. The Bashi- 
lancre brought him food, but as soon as the evening 
grew dark he disappeared, at which we could not help 
feeling glad, as it led us to suppose that he would 
tell the members of his tribe of our not belonging to 
Tibbu Tibb's rapacious troops. 

The daily falls of rain were very tiresome on 
account of their soaking the heavy clayey roads, 
and thus causing our weakened people to slip while 
marching. It was astonishing that, with the constant 
gloomy weather and cold winds, and in spite of the uni- 
versal exhaustion and the many diseases, we had so far 
only to record five deaths in the caravan. 

On our march we observed a range of separate 
mountains between Lubefu and Lukassi, rising pre- 
cipitously from the prairie, which from a distance 
appeared quite level. We kept continually along the 
Lukassi. As soon as we approached the edge of its 
valley, the generally uninterrupted prairie at first alter- 
nated with scanty tree savannahs, which towards the 
bottom grew thicker and thicker. The country was 
bare of primaeval forests, and was no longer inhabited 


by the grey parrot, whose habitat is strictly hmited to 
such districts. He prefers, however, small primseval 
forests and stretches of wood along the river to the 
vast uninterrupted ones ; while his two relatives, the 
large and the small green parrot, are inhabitants of 
the savannah. Above on the prairie the dwarf bustard 
was very plentiful. 

At one of the shallow brooks, here often bordered 
by papyrus jungles, we had to turn, the bridge being 
torn away, and there being no material far or near with 
which to replace it ; and only after a long circuit could 
we find a crossing-place. Close thickets and high grass, 
now dripping with wet, cold winds and clouded skies, 
made marching exceedingly difficult. Le Marinel had 
for two hours daily to act as a doctor. Among the 
100 invalids, some of whom had to be carried, nearly 
fifty were footsore ; these were in charge of Bugslag 
and the soldiers of the rear, and generally did not reach 
the camp till evening. 

On January 21 we once more crossed the Lukassi 
in canoes which we had on the spot. The river, here 
100 metres broad and three metres deep, flowed slowly, 
and its water was of a dark grey colour. Before 
reaching the canoes we had to cross an overflowed 
space of two kilometres, the water reaching up to our 
waists. We now entered the country of those Kalebue 
who, as subjects of Tibbu Tibb, had taken part in the 
warlike expedition against the western members of their 
tribe. At last we succeeded in getting some meat, the 
chief bringing us four fowls. On the left bank of the 
Lukassi we had to contend with long grass, thickets,. 



and many bogs, which furtlier weakened the heaUh of 
the caravan. 

On the 23rd, close to the mouth of the Lukassi, 
we reached the Lomami, near the ferry of the Bena 
Sala ; they, Uke all the natives here, suffered severely 
from want of food, the roving troops of Tibbu Tibb 


not even sparing the plantations of a friendly country. 
The Lomami was here 150 metres broad by three 
metres deep, and had a speed of eighty metres a minute. 
The bed consisted of coarse shingle ; the brink of the 
banks was bordered by a thin edge of oil palms and 
wild dates, besides a kind of willow. The gently 


sloping banks showed grass savannah. While I was 
marching, a large-winged spur-goose flew close past me 
before I could get my rifle ready. ' There goes our 
breakfast ! ' I called out to Le Marinel. The bird, how- 
ever, took pity on us ; he turned, and I succeeded in 
shooting the young goose, which later we greatly 
enjoyed. The bird was the first warning of the diffi- 
culties we should have to encounter, consisting of vast 
bogs and pools, which afford the wild geese a favourite 
abode. What our caravan could be living on was a 
complete puzzle to me. Even the inhabitants of the 
small, thinly-populated villages that we passed were 
suffering from hunger. It was impossible, therefore, 
to allow the dead-tired caravan a rest, for only by a 
continual and quick change of place could we find the 
most necessary food for satisfying our hunger. On the 
way Le Marinel and I often revelled in recollections of 
the Cafe Eiche in Brussels ; Le Marinel especially was 
a connoisseur of the most refined gastronomy at home, 
and his descriptions often made my mouth water. The 
conclusion of such a conversation was generally the 
tightening of our belts and the ho^^ing for better 

It made me very sad to observe my jioor Bashilange 
in the morning when starting. But for the strict enforce- 
ment of the order to move on, many a one most certainly 
would have preferred to lie still rather than drag along 
his sick and weary body. Bugslag complained daily of 
difficulties with the rear-guard ; his lot was not an 
enviable one. From morning till night he had inces- 
santly to bring on the weary by persuasion or, if 


necessary, by having them carried, or, when they were 
ill, by taking them on his bull. He performed his task 
with an iron calmness and patience. Whenever we 
halted the people began to scream: 'Kabassu-Babu, give 
us food, we are dying with hunger ! ' The complaints 
of my poor companions cut me to the quick ; but where 
was the remedy ? I was not even in a position to show 
my sympathy, but had to do my utmost to encourage the 
weary, and urge them onwards. Of any European pro- 
visions, preserves, &c., there was of course nothing left; 
we had distributed everything up to the last tin. The 
only one of the caravan who did not grow thin was 
the fat interpreter, Kashawalla. He made use of his 
cleverness in his intercourse with the natives, which 
made him a favourite with everyone, and filled his 
stomach ; and whilst so engaged he even lost his good 
nature, at least as regards sharing his food with others. 
He was a great adept at concealing food in the baskets 
of his wives. 

On the 23rd commenced the crossing of theLomami 
in four canoes ; 600 people were brought over. Three 
hundred more, and the bulls, had to stop till next day, 
the transport again taking a whole day. The people 
thought that the Lomami fell into the Lualaba. 
Farther down the river they knew nothing of either 
falls or sands ; above, the river was supposed to be 
navigable for canoes for only another five days' jour- 
ney — as far as the falls which were said to be in the 
Baluba country. 

Here there was not much to live upon either, but 
I was in hopes that a halt, when I would send my 


people in all directions to purchase provisions from the 
natives, would be of advantage to us. 

Since my first journey much had changed here to 
our disadvantage. Formerly we used to make pur- 
chases in exchange for cowrie-shells and cheap beads ; 
nobody, however, would take these now : they wanted 
stuffs and coloured beads which they had seen with 
Tibbu Tibb's people ; and, everything being dear on 
account of the famine, my goods diminished most 
alarmingly. However, I could not but pay what they 
asked, so far as I could afford it, taking my share in 
alleviating the craving hunger which tormented the 
peo|)le. On the Lualaba I hoped to procure provisions 
from the Arabs. The governor of the countries'^on the 
Lomami which belong to Tibbu Tibb was, at the time, 
the same Said whom I met as a leader of the army on 
the Lukassi. He performed administrative duties for 
his master and for his own pocket — collecting tribute, 
compelling people to serve under him, and punish- 
ing offences. These were often a cause for making 
war, for even a dispute among the people or the 
villages will give the Arab's substitute a pretext for 
interfering in his master's name. If compelled to do 
so, they obediently follow the army, as we have seen : 
brothers of the same name fought against each other in 
the cause of their tyrants. That is the result of the reign 
of terror with which the Arabs have here established 
themselves ! The collecting of tribute consisted in quite 
an arbitrary system of pillaging. Each great or petty 
substitute for his master asked just what suited him, 
since rules, of course, did not exist. It is astonishinsf 


that natives will stay at all in such countries. The 
cunning Arabs, however, prevent them from leaving 
the district entirely by flattering some of the greater 
and more influential chiefs, giving them a certain 
power, and even bribing them by presents. 

Said, as governor of the province, had an old slave 
or coaster installed as a representative with each of the 
greater chiefs ; then, also, he had his sub-officials and 
spies at the various villages, so that nothing could 
happen without its coming to the knowledge of the 
administrator of the province. If an elephant was killed, 
one tusk belonged to the master of the country, Tibbu 
Tibb ; the other had likewise to be sold to him at his 
own price. Each of Said's representatives practised 
fraud in a gradually increasing degree, and the system 
of taxation was thus a reckless system of extortion. 

During the day's halt we had built a bridge across 
the Kalui, close by, and next day marched through a 
plain with tree-savannah and long grass, intersected by 
shallow and gently curving water-courses. There was 
great abundance of elephants. These animals evidently 
at certain times exchange the district of the primeval 
forest beyond the Lomami for this plain, princijDally in 
order to drink the water of the salt lakes, and to 
enjoy the ripe fruit of the borassus, which has a sweet 
and pleasant taste. I was indefatigable in pursuing 
fresh traces of them, so as once more to procure meat 
for our people. The deep grass, however, not only ren- 
dered the shooting expeditions difficult and fatiguing, 
but it also thwarted every approach to the huge beast, by 
causing too much noise when trodden on — the elephant 



1 r' 


being very cautious. 
I am certain that our 
people had had no meat 7^^^ 
since passing the San- 
kurru, quite six weeks be- 
fore, except caterpillars, locusts, and the like. 

Whenever natives happened to come into the camp 
with provisions for sale, hundreds of the caravan rushed 
upon them, and snatched their provisions from them, so 
that afterwards I posted guards, who had to take the sales- 
men to a place where Bugslag was ready to buy all the 
provisions, which he afterwards distributed. During 
the distribution the stick had to act a chief part ; but, 
in spite of it, there was often no preventing them from 
tearing away the provisions. On one of these occasions 
ten of my Bashilange fell dangerously ill. Vomiting 
and convulsions were the symptoms with all of them. 

p 2 


We found out that, in order to satisfy their craving 
hunger, they had cooked and eaten bulbs which they 
knew to be poisonous. Emetics were, however, suc- 
cessfully administered. 

Great annoyance was caused by the prickly seeds 
which fell off the ripe grass at the slightest touch. The 
seeds, with their many little sharp points, got between 
the clothes and the skin, and with each movement of 
the body caused an irritating sensation. In order to 
remove this torment one had to undress and carefully 
pick off the seeds. 

The country gradually became almost level ; only at 
a far distance, towards the east, we noticed gentle 
ranges of hills. Everything was dripping with the in- 
cessant rain ; the tough greyish-white clay of the plain 
did not allow the water to penetrate, nor did it flow ofi, 
so that we had to march half the way in pools over 
tough and slippery clayey ground. Almost the only 
tree on the vast grass plain was the fan palm. 
Swarms of geese and ducks and green pigeons enlivened 
the endless watery tract ; elephants also were plentiful. 

On the 27th, when halting at the small villages of 
the Bena Kapua, I could not bring myself to punish my 
people for pillaging the fields. They ate even what 
was not ripe, and especially chewed the green blades of 
millet, which are rather sugary in taste. Our arrival at 
the place of encampment was a sorry sight. Grey was 
the sky, grey did our people look with cold and hunger, 
and grey was the future. We again had to bury some 
Bashilange who had succumbed to the effects of hunger. 
In spite of the suffering, not a word was uttered to 


reproach, me ; the unbounded confidence of my sons 
of the Lulua was carried so far that mothers, who did 
not know how to feed their children, would hush up 
their complaints and frettings with the assurance : 
' Kabassu Babu will make it all right, he will soon take 
us to a place where we shall find something to eat ! ' 

It would have been next to impossible to make this 
journey with other people than my Bashilange. Other 
tribes might possibly have borne hunger, sickness, 
fatigues, war, incessant cold and rain, better than my 
rather weakly people ; but discontent, reproaches, and 
mutiny would have been unavoidable with any other 

With one of Le Marinel's patients mortification had 
set in. The flesh assumed a greyish-black colour and 
began to waste away. In proportion as the morti- 
fication spread, the bone also decayed and fell ofi' 
the joints. Tliis disease always commenced in the toes, 
probably in consequence of the continual bogs and 
damps that we had passed through, and was helped by 
the sore feet, as well as by the weak and delicate 
bodily condition, of my people. "When the mortifica- 
tion extended to the upper part of the foot, the patient 
died after violent fever. Le Marinel told the people 
that the only help would be to take off the joint. At 
first they all refused, but afterwards they declared 
themselves ready for the amputation, on condition 
that I approved of it and that I would be present. 
It was by no means easy to perform the operation, as 
we had no surgical instruments with us. While we 
were cutting into the proud flesh the patients did not 


feel anything, but liad we only gone so far our operating 
would have been of no avail. So we decided to cut 
off the joint above the diseased part. Without any 
practical knowledge, without either surgical instru- 
ments or chloroform, Le Marinel, who had great skill in 
such things, performed the operation, and now had the 
gratification of stopping the progress of mortification 
and of saving many lives. 

On our march one mornino- we found that one 
man with a gun and a load of provisions had not arrived 
at the camp. I had, therefore, to halt, and send back 
patrols, who, however, returned without him. I had 
been made aware of this from the lost oun beino' a 
chassepot carbine ; besides, I should have been sure to 
notice the missing load. To my great consternation I 
learned that some of the Bashilange had repeatedly 
lingered behind ; very likely they had been overcome by 
hunger on the way, or they had been kept back on 
account of bodily pain. As Bugslag always brought on 
all the weary men who were found on the road, the dis- 
appearance of the people could only be accounted for 
by their having hid in the deep grass, so as to escape 
encountering new tortures and fatigues. 

The involuntary day of rest had, at least, enabled 
our people to procure sufiicient food near the road to 
satisfy all ; but — ^just as if on this journey everything 
was to be turned into trouble — the first case of small- 
pox was now discovered among my Bashilange, and was 
soon followed by another and others. 

The weather did not change for the better ; every- 
thing came either to a standstill or was spoiled ; grey 



clouds lowered from morning to night, rain was inces- 
sant, and the cold was felt even by Europeans. 

It often happened that the van of the caravan, 
wading through a pool, would suddenly sink in to a con- 
siderable depth, for below this vast waste of water there 
proved to be the channel of a brook. In order to cross 


one of these water-courses I invented a new kind of 
bridge. There was no tree to be seen far and wide, 
nothing but brushwood, grass, and swamp ; the edges of 
the brooks, some feet under water, were distinguishable 
by the thicker brushwood. I ordered all the men to 
disperse, cut down bushes, drag them along and throw 


them into the water where it was narrowest. The current 
being scarcely perceptible, the wood remained on the 
surface until pressed down by a fresh supply ; and after 
200 men liad toiled^ for two hours, a wall, as it were, 
arose, Avhich, though unsteady, enabled us safely to cross 
the brook. As may be seen from the illustration, this 
kind of bridge can be more easily constructed than one 
of beams ; but naturally it can onl}^ be formed in a slow 

We had, at least, half the distance to wade through 
water, which increased the number of sore feet. Those 
ill with small-pox I had tried to leave behind near a 
small village, after pitching tents for them and supply- 
ing them with provisions ; but the natives turned them 
out, and took everything from them. 

I had to keep them, therefore, and ordered them to 
march at least 100 metres behind the rear of the caravan 
and to build their huts 500 metres off the camp. One 
day a young Mushilange, ill with small -pox, came con- 
trary to order into the camp, and, as he was not willing 
to go, I sent him back by force, when his mother, a 
Mushilange woman, anxious about her son, tried to 
stab me with a knife, and it was difficult to convince her 
that the isolation of the patients was for the benefit of 
all ; I could only calm her by giving her some medicine 
for her son. 

All the slaves of the Bashilange, mostly descended 
from the Baluba tribe, had fled to the natives, so as to 
be no longer exposed to the hunger and fatigue of the 
march. Of my ransomed Baluba, however, not one was 
missina . 


In spite of tlie small iiumLer of loads and the large 
caravan, I was scarcely able to distribute the former. 
Few people felt strong enough to carry anything, even 
for high wages. 

We were informed daily that two, three, and more 
people had been left behind dying. As my soldiers, 
whom I had been in the habit of sending back to look 
for the missing, grew gradually over-tired, I obliged 
the Bashilange chiefs to go back even with their best 
people to look after their subjects. In the evening I 
made them report how many had not been found. 
Strange to say, this generally corresponded so well 
with the number of those who had been missing at 
first, that one day, on investigating whether the Bashi- 
lange were actually looking for their people, I found 
them concealed in a thicket close to the camp. They 
intended to wait there till dark and then report in the 
camp that the invalids had not been found. I could 
not punish them for this proceeding, convinced as I 
was that it did not arise from want of feeling, but was 
simply owing to their inability to march back. 

At Kilembue we at last got enough to eat, and the 
provisions were even fairly cheap, so that, in conse- 
quence of their eating such quantities of food, a good 
many fell ill in the evening. The population increased 
the nearer we approached the north. We came to the 
villages of Kawamba Kitenge, the chief of the Bena 
Nguo, where representatives of Tibbu Tibb were every- 
where stationed with some soldiers. The shady villages, 
with pretty little clay houses, which often have a small 
verandah and fenced-in gardens, abounded in sheep. 


goats, pigs, fowls, and there were also fields which pro- 
duced whatever our delighted Bashilange could desire ; 
even rice, imported by the Arabs, was grown. The 
natives, notwithstanding, behaved very well ; they were 
rather bold, certainly, but by no means insolent. 

On February 1 we reached Kitenge's residence, and 
pitched our camp in the shadow of the trees which 
surrounded the tombs of the dead chiefs. An aged 
Zanzibari, Tibbu Tibb's representative at this place, 
recognised me, having been with us when, in 1882, I 
had marched from Tabara to the coast with Tiblm Tibb. 
He told me why the natives had always been unwilling 
to accompany me on elephant hunts in these parts ; 
they had been afraid lest I should claim the ivory, half 
of which belonged to Tibbu Tibb by law, and half had 
to be sold to him. The old Zanzibari made a good im- 
pression on me, though he was exceedingly reserved on 
being questioned about Nyangwe and the state of affairs 
at Stanley Falls. 

It was a twelve days' march from here to JSTyangwe, 
and as I learned that all the water-courses were greatly 
swollen, I resolved to leave the greater part of the cara- 
van, with all the sick and weak, behind. I held a review 
and selected the strongest men for an onward-moving 
escort. The rest, with Kashawalla, who had made 
friends with Kitenge and the old Zanzibari, were to 
stay here, where food was plentiful, and the prices 
not too high ; they were to be picked up again on Le 
Marinel's return. The review, as might have been antici- 
pated, showed a very bad result ; our loss was greater 
than we had bargained for. Of one familv. that had 


numbered eight when starting, only three were left ; of 
another, a third only survived ; and even though we did 
not succeed in ascertaining the number of the lost — the 
Bashilange never could be collected together, and the 
chiefs did not like to state the loss correctly — we es- 
timated it at nearly fifty men. For all that, the chiefs 
insisted on accompanying me, feeling ashamed, they 
said, of returning to the Lulua without having seen 
Nyangwe, the great town of the Arabs. I supplied 
Kashawalla with another interpreter, some soldiers, and 
plenty of goods, so that they should not be inconve- 
nienced, and got ready for marching on with the cara- 
van, now numbering 200 persons. Kitenge had brought 
numerous presents, fifteen goats, six pigs, and large 
quantities of corn. In return I gave him, at his request, 
a bull, as he promised to watch over the safety of my 

After those who were intended to remain behind had 
pitched their camp near Kitenge's residence, and Tibbu 
Tibb's representative had been won to our cause, I 
started on the Oth, but halted an hour later, and in a 
place where none could hide I reviewed my new 
caravan, and discovered about 100 people whom I had 
appointed to stay behind, but who, contrary to my 
orders, had joined us, and some of whom had to be sent 
back by force. In order that we should not be followed 
by stragglers again, I made my outposts wait for an 
hour at each place, and had another troop carried back 
to Kashawalla. We received presents from all quarters, 
but not until the people had heard of my being an old 
friend of Tibbu Tibb's. Their manner to me was always 


rather forward, almost insolent ; this, considering how 
they had behaved on former occasions, rather baffled 
me, since no Europeans had been here meanwhile. 
^ After the Congo had been crossed, where it was 
twenty metres broad and 1-5 metre deep, with an over- 
flow of two kilometres' breadth, I received news at 
the village of the Bena Lubowa which enlightened me 
about much -that had so far been unintelligible. 

A coast negro, one of Tibbu Tibb's people, was so 
insolent outside my tent that with my own hands I 
turned him out of the fence surrounding it. Soon after- 
wards an old man who had accompanied me from Kitenge 
appeared, asking for a private interview. He told me 
that a few months before the Europeans had been at war 
with the Arabs near Stanley Falls station, and that a cousin 
of Tibbu Tibb's had taken the station of the white men 
by storm, when one of these had fallen and three fled, and 
the station had been burnt down. In expectation of an 
avenging expedition, thousands of Tibbu Tibb's people 
had been sent thither, among them many warriors from 
these parts, who had only lately returned, as the wdiites, 
being too small in numbers to fight against Tibbu, had 
not come back. This was bad news. I arrived here 
with the same flag ^ against which, as we all knew, 
Tibbu Tibb's people had fought near the Falls. 

To advance in force was not to be thought of, for 
if there had been a fio'ht none of the Bashilano-e would 
have been spared. Three parts of my people had been 
left behind ill, unable to march or fight ; Tibbu Tibb 

^ I carried the star-flag of the Congo State beside the black, white, 
and red. 


himself, who was to be trusted most, had gone down to 
the coast, and my old friend the Sheik Abed had also 
gone. The only friendly Arab whom I knew, and who 
was still on the Lualaba, was Famba Juma Merikana, 
known from Cameron's journey. My prospects, there- 
fore, were very gloomy. Would not the Arabs have 
blamed me for the fights near Stanley Falls ? Would 
they not keep us as hostages for an avenging expedition 
from the Lower Congo ? Even if such were not the case, 
would they give me means for a further exploration ? 

The present representative of Tibbu Tibb was Bwana 
Zefu, his son, to whom I had been of great service 
years before, at the residence of the mighty Uniamwesi 
prince, Mirambo, but whom I had since then discovered 
to be a passionate, suspicious, and cunning fellow. At 
present I had to act with caution and prudence, for not 
only was the progress of my expedition, but also the 
lives and liberty of my nearly 900 followers were de- 
pendent on my bearing. It was a pity that my people 
also learned the news, which until now had been skil- 
fully concealed from us, and was only now transmitted 
when we appeared too small in numbers to be in 
any way formidable to the Arabs. Later I learned 
that Said, the leader of the vagabonds on the 
Lukassi, had sent the report of our approach to 
ISTyangwe, and that from thence directions had been 
despatched to all the chiefs on the road. The people 
were not to betray the intended war to us, until either 
we should have reached the territory of the Arabs or be 
too weak to enter into any hostilities. The behaviour 
of the natives was now accounted for. At first the 


only thing to be done was to emphasise the pacific 
purpose of our expedition and quietly to continue our 
march. If we had marched back to the bulk of the 
troop, the surrounding tribes, with Said and his people, 
and a reinforcement from the Lualaba, would have 
been brought on our rear at once. Even if, at the 
best, we had been able to defend ourselves, a return 
with almost 900 sick and weak into that district of 
starvation was not to be thought of, least of all in a 
fighting attitude. This would have been equivalent to 
the annihilation of the caravan. 

Lussana, the chief of the Malela, sent us six loads 
of manioc, four of bananas, one of sugar, 100 eggs, 
eight fattened sheep, and one fat pig ; in return for which, 
at his special request, I gave him two small barrels of 
powder and four handkerchiefs, which he sent back as 
not sufficient. I soon, however, learned that three 
insolent young fellows, who had to arrange the ex- 
change of presents, had forged the second demand of 
the good-natured chief and then intercepted it. The 
impudence of some people from Nyangwe, who on the 
way had robbed my people of beads and fowls, made 
me anxious about the future. Besides, a man with his 
load was missing again. 

We now approached a point where several large 
tribes meet. North-west of us lived the Batetela of 
Kassonga Lusliia ; Kitenge had been the northernmost 
Bassonge prince, for Lussuma belonged to the Wakussu, 
who are part of the Wasongora or Bassonga. On the 
south-east the Baluba extended to this latitude along 
the Lualaba. 


On the Moadi I suddenly met an Arab, or rather a 
Beloochistan man, who had come on a tradmg expedi- 
tion from Nyangwe and offered to accompany me to 
the Lualaba. He sent me rice and lemons, and told me 
that Famba was ill, and, in order to allay the excite- 
ment that might be caused by my appearance at 
Nyangwe, he advised me to send messengers to the 
Arabs there, assuring them of my pacific approach. 
I did so, and for this mission selected Humba, two 
soldiers, and the flag-bearer Fickerini. 

This arrangement had the advantage of not being 
conspicuous, if I should need to withdraw the star-flag 
which Fickerini had carried until now, but which was 
pursued with threats by many people who knew it 
from Stanley Falls. As the Beloochistan, Sahorro, 
cheated me immensely in my bargains with him, he 
was very amiable and exceedingly useful to me in my 
precarious situation. 

On we marched through the saline country of the 
Bena Samba, across the ridge of hills west of the Lualaba 
into the valley of the father of African streams, the 
Lualaba Congo, which I reached on the evening of 
February 14, near a settlement of the fishing people, the 

In the large beautiful canoes, coming from the 
northern primasval forests, we next day crossed the 
Lualaba, which has here a breadth of 1,200 metres, and 
had a shelter assigned to us at Nyangwe. We Europeans 
were lodged in a poor and dirty little house, and our 
Bashilange in a remote part of the town. It was a bad 
sign that we were not received by an}^ Aral3, as was 


the case last time, and as Arab civility demands. 
Except the crowds of slaves staring at us, no one 
seemed to take any notice of us. I soon learned that 
encroachments had taken place at Nyangwe. My old 
friend, the Sheik Abed, had been partially compelled 
to travel to the coast, as they said, by order of the 
Sultan Said Bargash, in order to pay his debts to Indian 
traders. His present representative, Halfan, did not 
come till evening ; he behaved civilly, but was most re- 
served — which, however, did not prevent him from beg- 
ging continually. The fact of his desires being gratified 
procured us visits from many inferior Arabs, who all de- 
manded one thing or another. It was almost night when 
one of them told me at last that, if I were to give him such 
and such a thing, he would betray any conspiracy on 
foot against me. They had evidently not made up their 
minds how to treat me, and I heard that conferences were 
being incessantly held about this question. Next day 
came Zefu, Tibbu Tibb's son, in a canoe from Kassonge, 
accompanied by six insolent young fellows. Zefu's 
behaviour was shocking. The hot-headed young fellow, 
made insolent by his sense of superiority, treated me in 
such a manner that it was only with the utmost effort 
that I could master myself sufficiently to answer him 
quietly, as necessity demanded. We were regularly put 
throusfh a series of questions as to whence we came, in 
whose commission, how long we had been coming, &c. 
At our answers, which may have seemed strange to the 
half-savage Arabs, who are partly negroes (Zefu, too, is 
quite black) — they would sometimes laugh right into our 
faces. In quite a nonchalant way they would jeeringly 


imitate the heavy movements of Biigslag's robust sailor- 
figure. They criticised Le Marinel's and my looks 
without hesitation in the Suaheli language, perfectly un- 
intelligible to me. My man-servant Sankurru, who had 
been given me by Abed, and who had formerly been 
known here, was called and asked in our presence 
whether our statements were true or not ; in short, to any- 
one acquainted with Arab, civility, their behaviour was 
rude and provoking. ^ At length, though with great diffi- 
c\ilty, I brought myself to assume a stoical tranquillity, 
which gradually toned down the insolent and noisy be- 
haviour of our inquisitors. The manner in which Zefu 
told us about the war near Stanley Falls, and the way 
in which he described the wounds and death of a Euro- 
pean, calling them cowards, &c., was most revolting. 

This insult, the worst an Arab can utter, made me 
start and ask him to whom he owed his not having been 
taken prisoner by Mirambo some years ago ; but it was 
necessary that I should keep my temper, as on the result 
of this conference might possibly depend the destiny of 
my whole caravan. This scene had the advantage of 
making me see plainly that from this point any further 
undertaking would be impossible, and that my special 
endeavour must be to send home unhurt the many 
hundreds of people who had accompanied me. (Zefu 
pointed out one of his followers to me as being the one 
who had killed the white man, which the other boast- 
ingly corroborated.) That I should not take back the 
troop myself was decided by Tibbu Tibb's son, who 
requested me to follow him to Kassongo. It was 
obvious that they wanted to keep me as a hostage for 



Tibbu Tibb, who had gone to Zanzibar, and about whom 
they felt anxious, in consequence of the skirmishes near 
Stanley Falls. I prepared myself to remain here as a 
prisoner for the next twelve months, unless a chance 
should preserve me from such a fate. A half-bred Arab 
had from the beoinninoj' been commanded to look after 
my wants, but he was to act as a spy, and was of course 
not to lose sight of me. He reported my every move- 
ment, and was so amiable as to beg incessantly. 

Above all it was necessary to remove Zefu's distrust 
if possible, and the best way was to win him over by 
presents. Before he left I therefore gave him a beau- 
tiful rifle and some silk stuffs which I had taken as 
presents for the Arabs. Sahorro gradually told me that 
the Arabs had resolved not to let me go, and so, antici- 
pating the communication on the part of the Arabs, I 
made known to Zefu my intention of remaining here with 
Bugslag and some of my people. The Bashilange, how- 
ever, I would send back first to Kitenge, and from thence 
to their own country, with those who had remained 
behind, if they should meanwhile have sufficiently re- 
covered. They were to be conducted by Le Marinel, 
whom I had introduced here as French and not Belgian, 
as they entertained a burning hatred against the Belgians 
since the fight near the Falls. Zefu declared himself to 
be of the same opinion, and I made it my first endeavour 
by the purchasing of provisions to prepare for the return 
of the caravan. These I decided to buy from Juma 
Merikani, since he, the only Arab formerly known to me, 
had warned me against his fellow-tribesmen. I was to 
sail up the Lualaba with Zefu, who was ready to stop 
with me at Juma's to conclude the barirain. 


In the morning, at the hour fixed for embarking, 
Zefu was rather late, and did not make his appearance 
at the landing-place. I entered one of the canoes, and, 
telling the steersman that I wanted to go on to Juma, I 
made them push off, encouraging the oarsmen, as if for 
my amusement, to exert themselves, so as to arrive at 
Juma's as long as possible before Zefu, which would 
enable me to negotiate with the former undisturbed by 
Zefu's presence. I noticed two canoes, strongly manned 
with armed warriors, ' keeping watch ' below my house 
on the Lualaba, in order to prevent me, as I learned later, 
from taking possession of the canoes of ISTyangwe and 
sailing down the stream. We now went up the river, 
making the yellow water dash up high above the bow 
of the canoe, until we reached Juma's place. When I 
landed, there was no trace of Zefu's canoes. I hurried 
to the house of mv old friend, who ao-ain warned me 
against Zefu, and promised to sell beads and cloth to 
me, and to do all he could to facilitate my Bashilange's 
return home as soon as possible. Juma told me that 
at the rumour of my approach they had conjectured 
that I intended to seize Nyangwe and Tibbu Tibb's 
settlement, Kassongo, from the west, and to punish 
them for the destruction of the station at Stanley 

Afterwards, having learned that I had left the greater 
part of my caravan at Kitenge, they resolved to keep me 
as a hostage for Tibbu Tibb, and had taken measures to 
watch me from every side, as for instance by the canoes 
on the Lualaba. When Zefu arrived, much annoyed at 
my having hurried on — though he dared not sav so in the 

Q 2 



presence of old Juma — we entered upon business. I 
bought beads and stuffs, and, with Juma's vigorous sup- 
port, we agreed that I should return toNyangwe, and that, 
after making my Bashilange start on the 21st, I, with the 
people who were to remain with me, should go by land 
to Kassongo, Tibbu Tibb's residence. My people had 
noticed for some time that something was wrong, that 

.W^^/filllli|IO™'*'«''i'^'-'''' ' 


my friendly manners to the Arabs Avere only pre- 
tended, and, for their own safet}', they were glad soon to 
leave Nyangwe and to set out for their beloved Lulua. 

On the 21st Le Marinel returned with the caravan 
across the Lualaba. It was with a heavy heart that I 
saw the good people, who had suffered so much on my 
account, depart. I could not requite them for what they 
had done for me, and could only beg Le Marinel to treat 


them after their return as well as might be in his power. 
There was nothing to be feared for the safety of the 
caravan, except perhaps sickness and hunger ; though it 
was not so bad to have to pass through those desolate 
districts now, when they knew what to expect and were 
able to prepare themselves for any cases of emergency. 

Le Marinel had quickly learned how to treat the 
negroes. He had gained the love and confidence of 
the Bashilange by his truly unselfish surgical assistance 
and continual kindness. At the same time, he was 
thoroughly equal to any warlike eventualities, so that I 
was not anxious about the safety of the Bashilange. 
They, on their part, felt that I remained behind in a 
precarious situation ; as I read in their eyes and learned 
from their hearty hand-shake on parting with their 
'Moiio Kabassu Babu.' 

The ferry on the Lualaba had had repeatedly to 
witness sad partings. It was here that five years before 
I bade farewell to my friend Pogge, who was about to re- 
turn to the western wilderness. Now I was deeply moved 
at seeing my black sons from the Lulua leave me. Nor 
did Ifeel indifferent at having to separate fromLe Marinel. 
This young officer had been a faithful help in sad times. ^ 

Only ten of my coasters from Angola remained with 
me, besides twenty ransomed Baluba slaves, who refused 
to leave me ; and last, not least, Bugslag, good as gold, 
whose courage and trust were not to be shaken, and 
whose uniform good temper and devotion have made 
him my friend for life. 

^ In Appendix I. is added a letter of Le Marinel's, describing the 
return of the caravan from Nyangwe to their own coiuitry. 





Famba's disclosiu-es — Stores of ivory — In the lion's den — 'T^liite men 
are cowards ' — Thwarting of my plans — The mm-derer of a German — 
The past and present recollections of an old chief — I feel \eic\ weak — ■ 
The places of encampment poisoned h\ the corpses of slaves — Sad 
reflections — Apathy of my people — Horrors of the traffic in slaves — 
On the Tanganyika. 

I STARTED from Nyangwe on the 22ncl, and next day- 
stayed witli Juma bin Salim, who gave me three fatted 
oxen, a donkey, a red parrot,^ three sheep, some leopard 
skins, and many trifling presents ; in return for which 
I gave him my pistol, a musical box, and a bull. Juma 
advised me to be friendly and unembarrassed in my 
behaviour to Zefu, to make him presents — and especially 
to get away from Kassongo as speedily as possible ; I was 
then to march to the Tanganyika, from which point I 
should find different roads to the coast. I might be sure, 
he said, that if, during my sojourn at Kassongo, Tibbu 
Tibb's stations should be attacked by the Congo State, 
I should be lost ; even Tibbu Tibb's son could not 
protect me from the rage of the coasters and small 
traders. He also told me that only the fact of my 

^ These red parrots are freaks of natui-e, and occm' but rarely. Three 
or fom- grey parrots and a red one are now and then foixnd in one nest in 
the districts between Sankra-ni and Lomami. These birds fetch a great 
price on the coast. 



having formerly been 
on friendly terms 
with many Arabs and 
also with Tibbu Tibb 
had saved my cara- 
van from destruction. 
The excitement in 
consequence of the 
fighting at Stanley 
Falls, the blame for 
which was entirely 

ascribed to the hostile bearing of the white men of that 
place, was, he told me, far greater than was imagined. 
The reason for the skirmishes, which was known to be 
quite different from what was reported, he related to me 
in the followino- manner : the chief of the station near 



Stanley Falls, a certain Lieutenant Dean, had for a long- 
time, and finally by force, withheld the wife of an Arab 
who had followed him and had assisted slaves in their 
flight. Afterwards, when the said woman had been 
seized and beaten by her master, he had fired bomb-shells 
into Tibbu Tibb's camp, where he had killed and 
wounded several people. Then the Arabs had attacked 
him, and after several days' struggle, in which a white 
man had fallen, they had stormed the station. Two 
Europeans had saved themselves, and also part of the 
black troop, Haussa and Bangala. They had then 
pillaged and destroyed the station. He further told us 
that at Tabora an Arab had shot a German,^ who was 
trading with ivor}^ This Arab was at present staying at 
Kassongo, and was, in consequence of his deed, a great 
man ; in short, he said that bad times were at hand, that 
he was of opinion that a general struggle would soon 
break out between Europeans and Arabs, when not even 
the missionaries would be spared. I was, therefore, to 
caution the missionaries on the Tanganyika. He said he 
was too clever not to know that the fio-ht mii>iit o-q 
hard with the members of his tribe ; but, being re- 
garded as a friend of the white men, no one listened to 
his advice ; he had not even been admitted to the con- 
ferences held about me, though, at the time, he was the 
oldest Arab at the Lualaba. 

Juma himself was ill ; he was suffering greatly from 
elephantiasis, and could only be carried. On account 
of his illness and the troubles he predicted, I urgently 
advised him to go with his ivory to Zanzibar, and for 

' The German merchant, Giesecke. 


the purpose of this journey I gave hnn a quiet bull to 
ride. He owned great stores of ivory. Once he called 
his favourite wife — a slight, handsome, large-eyed 
woman from Uganda — the only one whom he entrusted 
with the key of his treasures — and made her take me 
into his camp, wdiere nearly 500 elephants' tusks lay 
piled up, not counting the small inferior ones. Juma 
is no bigoted, inveterate Mohammedan, either as re- 
gards his faith or his customs. He never hesitated 
to let his wives, who often brought me fruit and cake, 
hold intercourse with me. He spoke about religion in 
a very free manner, and, though this was not a good out- 
come of his free doctrine, he daily got drunk on a kind 
of brandy, compounded by himself of bananas and palm 
wine or millet beer. For me he had preserved a real 
friendship, and also for the English traveller, Cameron, 
of whom he always spoke with the greatest affection. 

When, in 1889, 1 came to the East African seaboard, 
I was very sorry to learn that he had died at JSlyangwe 
shortly after my departure. 

On February 26 I left Juma, and on March 2 I 
arrived at Kassongo, the den of the lion of Manyema, 
Tibbu Tibb's residence. The Arabs gave us a cold recep- 
tion and the populace even a hostile one. The crowds 
of people who had just attended a fair came flocking 
along to see us, and received us with loud jeers. Again 
and again we heard them call out, 'White men are 
cowards ! ' We took up our abode in a small, dirty, 
insignificant-looking house, unfit for the abode of a 
white man, and closed our door against the numerous 
visits of petty traders, Arab vagabonds, who formerly 



would not have dared to pay their respects to the 
friends of the great Arabs. Next day, as is customary, 
I called on all the gentry of the town, accompanied by 
Bugslag. Our calm and independent bearing, our empha- 
sising the fact of our being Germans, and the promise 


of some presents, called forth greater civility on our 
leaving than on entering. Any attempt to undertake a 
journey from this place, be it to the north or south, at 
once excited the distrust of those on whom we were now 
depending to such a degree that my conviction of the 
impossibility of effecting exploring expeditions from this 


point was more and more confirmed. After giving 
Zefu more presents, I tried again to get canoes and 
people, to be selected by the Arab himself, for a 
journey to Moero Lake and the Kamerondo ; but the 
manner in which he answered me convinced me of the 
fruitlessness of any further attempt. 

My former flag-bearer, Fickerini, from Zanzibar, was 
of the greatest use to me, reporting as he did everything 
that went on. He recorded each day the result of con- 
ferences held about me ; these always ended in their 
deciding that I should remain at least until they had 
heard from Tibbu Tibl^, though some Arabs, on friendly 
terms with Juma bin Salim, voted for their letting me 
go to the coast, since I was a German. The leaving my 
caravan behind at Kitenge, they said, proved that I had 
not been aware of the war on Stanley Falls ; besides, I 
had formerly been on friendly terms with the Arabs ; and 
I could not do them any harm, but should rather be of 
use to them, if, on getting to the coast, I were to tell 
how they had let me off uninjured. 

One day Fickerini came home in great glee and 
reported that messengers had arrived from the Tan- 
ganyika Lake with the news that Tibbu Tibb had arrived 
at Zanzibar and had not been called to account about 
the affair on Stanley Falls. 

By this time the tide had begun to turn in my favour, 
especially since nothing happened on Stanley Falls, 
and I had gradually gained the confidence of the more 
important Arabs by giving them presents. Once more 
I made an attempt to avail myself of my commission 
from H.M. the King of the Belgians. I proposed to 


Zefu to send me with some leading Arabs to Stanley- 
Falls, so that, should we happen to meet Europeans 
there, we might enter upon pacific negotiations. In 
vain ; he was too distrustful in this respect. Therefore, 
only one road was left to me — that towards the east. 

Once more I began to hope, hearing them speak of a 
European living near a lake north of the Tanganyika, 
who owned plenty of ivory and soldiers, and who, al- 
though a European,was said to be a Mohammedan and an 
officer of the Sultan of Massr, of Egypt. This could only 
be Emin Bey, of whom I had heard detailed reports before 
my last return to Africa. I now thought I might succeed, 
with the assistance of some Arab friends, in reaching 
the Albert Lake, if I were to go from Ujiji to the north 
of the Tanganyika. Although this was only a faint ray 
of hope, it yet revived me, for it offered the prospect 
of making the most of my march to the east. 

On the 7th, twenty-two days after reaching the 
Arabs, I was ready to prepare for my start to the 
east. I had been wavering whether I should stay and 
wait for a suitable moment to go up or down the 
Lualaba, but I now abandoned further hesitation, as any 
day we might hear of new skirmishes on Stanley Falls, 
which would seal the ruin of my troop and myself. 
After convincing myself that nothing was to be gained, 
but everything lost, by delay, I started towards the east 
on the large caravan road to the Tanganyika, though 
my heart was heavy at the impossibility of performing 
the last part of my commission. 

Le Marinel, with the Bashilange, would meanwhile 
have crossed the Lomami, and consequently be beyond 




the power of the Arabs. Had 
anything happened to him I 
should surely have learned it 
through ni}^ faithful Fickerini. 
Besides giving presents to the 
Arabs, I had been robbed of 
several loads of goods at Nyangwe and Kassongo, and 
my attempt to reclaim them from the Arabs had been 
fruitless. Among the lost loads was one with cartridges 
for the rifle I had given to Zefu, and, as Bugslag and 
I carried similar rifles, our ammunition was greatly 
diminished. I had taken the precaution to give Zefu 
only fifty cartridges with the rifle, pretending that I 
was running short, but one day, on going to see him, 
I noticed that he now possessed a much larger number, 
which evidently had been taken from the stolen box. 
Zefu on my departure exhibited a stinginess in making his 
return presents that one would have thought impossible 


to a man of rank brought up in Mohammedan customs. 
He gave me two old goats for the journey, and many 
saLaams, accompanied by ironical gesticulations. 

At our first stoppage old Fickerini asked me whether 
I had known the Arab who shortly l^efore my start had 
shaken hands with me. On my answer in the negative 
he told me that it was Mohammed bin Kassim,^ the 
murderer of the German merchant at Tabora. Kassim 
was always present at the meetings of the most important 
Arabs, and was much respected here. 

On passing the Hindi, which was much swollen and 
about sixty metres broad, I rode my bull into the water 
to find a good landing-place for canoes. The bull 
misunderstood my intention, and with a rush he 
plunged into the deep water, swimming with me and 
the heavy saddle on his back over to the opposite side. 
Once, in the middle of the stream, he had to struggle 
to keep his balance ; but on the whole he swam 

A few days later we came into the war district. 
Zefu's soldiers were collecting natives who were to act 
as oarsmen in transporting some more troops to Stanley 
Falls. Everyone had taken to flight ; only now and then 
had they stood their ground. Near our camp some 
natives fled across the Hindi, and some piercing shrieks 
that we heard were accounted for next day by the 
capsizing of a canoe with fugitive Manyema, seven of 
whom had been drowned. 

Marching in this part of Manyema, where the herbage 
is unusually high, was made specially diflicult among 

^ In 1890 I sentenced this Ai'ab to be handed. 


the jungle-like marianka-grass, the ]jlades of which are 
as thick as one's thumb. Some days after, we a^ain 
passed a scene of hostilities : an Arab who was offering 
provisions for sale had been shot, and his son, Said bin 
Habibu, was now avenging his father's death. 

On the 12th we crossed the Luamo, winding through 
piles of clay-slate, which in this latitude we found east 
of the Lualaba and reaching close to the Tangan3dka. 
My Baluba, who had kept up pretty well until now, 
began to sicken, and in order to transjDort my goods, 
few though they were, I had to hire natives at almost 
every village, not counting the twenty slaves engaged 
by Zefu. We daily passed settlements of coasters and 
Arabs, who told me that the head of the English mission, 
Captain Horn, had been prevented from carrying out 
his intention to hoist the English flag at Ujiji, and that 
the English missionaries were to be turned out from the 

On the ITtli I had once more the comfort of pitching 
a camp in a place far from any villages. A break 
in the incessant turmoil, the everlasting contest and 
haiyg^lino' in buving- and sellinq- and the hanoinsf round 
and staring on the part of the natives, causes a quiet 
camp to be a true source of enjoyment to the traveller. 
The constant strain upon the nerves gradually loosens ; 
one needs not always be ready to interfere with threats 
or persuasions, but is at liberty to give free course to 
one's thoughts ; in short, one feels like a 23risoner who 
is released for a few hours' relaxation. Never on my 
former travels had I been so much struck by the change 
as at present ; the uninterrupted succession of all our 


sufferings and disappointments, and the having continu- 
ally to ponder and reflect on expedients, had almost 
exhausted my energy. 

On the 18th, after crossing sixteen brooks, we 
reached Kalambarre, the large establishment of the Arab 
Eashid, a drunkard, a hemp-smoker, and an insolent 
besG'ar. In the evenini? we had a visit of several Arabs, 
among them the amiri — i.e. officer — of Eeichardt and 
Dr, Boehm on their journey to the source of the Lualaba. 
We arranged a shooting match, taking for our target 
the fruits of a melon-tree ; in this match I was victorious, 
though I did not receive the prize — a goat from each of 
the competitors. 

This reminds me of an extraordinary sentence passed 
by Eashid on being told that one of his men had shot 
at a native from jealousy. That the culprit should 
have fifty lashes for having shot so badly as to have 
only wounded the native, was the punishment for a really 
murderous attempt on the part of a tipsy slave. 

I felt more and more in physical suffering the strain 
on my nerves of which I made mention above. I 
suffered from headaches and nervous asthma, which 
caused the most painful sleeplessness. 

And now, on March 21, the rainy season set in again, 
which enabled me to confirm an observation of meteoro- 
logical importance which I had made on my first journey. 
I found out that between the Tanganyika and the 
Lualaba was the junction of the different courses of 
thunderstorms ; from the west to this point the storms 
always travelled from the east, and vice versa. 

At Ubujive we found the places of encampment 


fenced in by trunks of trees and briers to keep off the 
lions and leopards. I was unable to roam over the game- 
stocked valleys of Ubujive, being too weak at that time, 
and on reaching the camp was compelled to lie down. 

We found frequent traces of elephants, buffaloes, 
antelopes, lions, leopards, and hyenas. 

One day I had an interesting conversation with an 
old chief, who spoke to me of former times when as yet 
the Arabs had not crossed the Tanganyika. He de- 
scribed how the natives had gradually been dispossessed, 
enslaved, and more and more driven back, so that to- 
day on this road to Ubujive, which but ten years before 
had led through a densely populated district, only a 
sincrle native villao;e was to be found. A number of 
petty coast traders had settled here, making in every 
direction inroads into the interior. 

Ivory and slave caravans, starting from the settle- 
ment of the Arab Kalonda, advance for many months' 
journeys in a due-easterly direction. I was told that 
those countries were almost without exception covered 
with primaeval forests, that a great many Batua were to 
be met with, and that in the course of a few months 
I should reach rivers, falling neither into the Lualaba 
nor into the Tanganyika, but into a large lake towards 
the east. Stanley most likely met such a caravan on 
his march from the Aruvimi to the Albert Lake. 

The villages of the Bena Wasi Malungo, which I 
had touched on my first journey, had disappeared, nor 
did I, as then, find a trace of the Batua ; the Bena 
Bussindi were the last remnant of the native population 
on the caravan road. 


One day we passed a pool of sixty metres diameter 
whose waters showed a temperature of 38° Celsius. We 
were about to encamp near it, in a place often visited by 
caravans, but such was the pestilential smell caused by 
eight corpses, which, half devoured by hyenas, were in 
a state of putrefaction, that we tried to find a more 
suitable place farther up. A few thousand metres from 
this point we again reached a camp, and in the huts 
were some more corpses, one of which was shrivelled 
up like a mumm3^ On the road we repeatedly observed 
skulls and limbs. We had no difficulty in finding the 
high road of the slave trade, the most frequented line 
of communication from the settlements of the Arabs on 
the Lualaba to the Tanganjdka. 

My health, meanwhile, did not improve at all. I 
was exceedingly weak, and constantly in low spirits. 
One day, overcome by melancholy, I gave vent in my 
diary to complaints at the life in the wilderness which I 
here repeat, as there is a great deal of truth in them, 
whilst at the same time they give the reader an idea of 
the frame of mind in which a European, weakened by 
fever, may find himself. ' What a strange profession it is 
that I have chosen ! How different is one's idea of the 
life in the wilderness when at home ! Where is the 
feeling of satisfaction at one's work ? where the charm 
of danger ? where the relief at having escaped from it ? 
where, in short, the least poetry of life ? How is it that 
we are so seldom suffered to enjoy the beauty of nature ? 
Never under the scorching rays of the tropical sun have 
you such a feeling of unconquerable strength as you 
may have at home ; your breast never expands in exul- 


tation at your own powers. JSTot a single one of the 
many choice enjoyments of our country is to be found 

' What a miserable existence it is ! what privations, 
disappointments, and anxiety one has to struggle with, in 
the midst of unpleasant surroundings ! Nature mostly 
offers a dull repetition of the same desolate wilderness, 
either oppressed by a scorching sun or mouldering with 
continual damp. We move along like captives, hemmed 
in by the almost impenetrable vegetation, which does not 
even suffer our eyes to refresli themselves with a distant 
view. Who are the companions of our present lives ? 
Poor, naked, stupid children, without trust or faith, with- 
outjieart or feeling for the sublime, thinking of nothing 
but the satisfaction of their meanest wants, without 
any higher thought, any nobler aim. Eound about, only 
misery, wretchedness, and stupidity or barbarism, savage- 
ness and want of feeling. A continual struggle with 
the climate, and everlasting anxiety about the success 
of plans ; while trouble and failure constantly occupy 
our minds. Is this country, are these people worth 
labouring for? What results can offer a recompense 
for such sacrifices? Could we not find a worthier 
object in our endeavour to be useful ? ' 

Such were the thoughts that tormented me while 
physically suffering. But no sooner did I gain new 
strength than hope would return, and aims worth striv- 
ing for would float before my mind ; at such times 
tlie difficulties of my present existence became bear- 

I daily met caravans headed by Arabs or Beloochees 

B 2 


bound for the Lualaba or Stanley Falls, here called 
' Mitaml^a.' They generally brought powder and guns 
with them, scarcely any stuffs and beads. Nearly all the 
Arabs, as well as most of the leaders of the caravans, 
had good breech-loaders and plenty of ammunition. 
We found nearly all the English systems in use. 

My ransomed Baluba diminished in numbers daily, 
either hy death or from being lost in the wilderness. 
The Baluba, mostly big strong-boned fellows, had re- 
sisted the effects of our starvino- marches longer than 
the Bashilange, but they now began to tell on them. 
They became apathetic, manageable neither by kind- 
ness nor force, and completely idiotic. Neither the 
numbers of corpses and limbs on the road, nor the 
shrieks of the hyenas in broad daylight, which I had 
never heard before, could induce them to keep up on 
the way and not succumb to fatigue. I believe that 
m.any of them who had fallen asleep on the road must 
have been devoured by beasts of prey, or, as a good find, 
have been taken back to the west by passing caravans. In 
this manner I lost several loads together with the Baluba, 
which was a serious matter for me. The quiet of the 
night was incessantly disturbed l)y the horrible howling 
or baying of the hyena, the hoarse growling of the leopard, 
and the piercing bark of the jackal. Although the 
country abounded with game, the beasts of prey found 
more convenient food in the slaves who had succumbed 
to exhaustion. 

In some small villages near our route we found a 
new kind of slave-hunters, who set about their work in 
a less dangerous way than is the case in the attacks 



made by the natives. These people lie in wait on 
the road, seizing straggling slaves, and, offering pro- 
visions for sale in the camp, they induce others to run 
away, so as to sell them at last at Ujiji on the Tan- 

Our march on this large caravan road enabled us to 
make minute studies of the imports to, and exports from, 
Central Africa. While those coming towards us only 
carried arms and ammunition into the interior, we met 
a few days later three caravans who were taking the 
proceeds of these imports to the coast — some ivory, and 
hundreds of slaves, fastened together with long chains and 
neck-yokes in sets of from ten to twenty. The weaker 
women and children, who were not expected to escape, 
were only tied with ropes. Those who had to be 
especially watched were walking by twos in the 
mukongua, the slave-fork, in which the neck is fas- 
tened. One would scarcely credit the miserable and 
lamentable condition the unfortunate human chattels 
were in. Their arms and legs were almost fleshless, 
their bodies shrivelled up, their looks heavy and their 
heads bent, while they were marching along eastward 
into an unknown future, farther and farther away from 
their homes, separated from wife and child, from father 
and mother, who had perhaps escaped into the woods or 
had been struck down in defending themselves. It was 
a revolting scene to watch the daily distribution of food 
in the camp of such a caravan. 

The hungry creatures, with dilating eyes, were 
crowding round the spot where one of the overseers 
was stationed to distribute victuals, now and then 


using his stick to drive back the crowcl'^ that were 
pressing close round him. A small pot, about the size 
of a tumbler, was filled with corn, maize, or millet, and 
poured into the goat's skin with which they covered 
their nakedness. Some of them, too tired to rub or 
pound the corn, simply boiled it in water or roasted it in 
a saucepan over the fire, and then devoured it in order 
to satisfy their craving hunger. Before the different 
sets were allowed to lie down they were once more 
driven out of the camp, and then they would throw 
themselves down near one of the large fires to rest their 
exhausted bodies. The slaves were mostly bound to- 
gether according to their powers of marching, without 
the least regard to sex. Scarcely the fourth part of 
these reach the maritime countries or the plantations of 
the coasters they are bound for. The large Arab 
settlements in the interior, chiefly Ujiji and Tabora, 
absorb great numbers of slaves, especially the former, 
which is notorious for its bad climate. A working 
slave — in distinction from the female slaves, who are put 
into the harem — at Ujiji is said not to stand the climate 
above a year. 

One day, when I was lying in wait for buffaloes near 
the camp, I was surprised to see, instead of the game, a 
boy of about eight years of age come out of the thicket, 
cautiously approaching a place that commanded a view of 
our camp. When I left my covert he was at first going 
to take flight, but afterwards followed me into the camp. 
The boy had escaj)ed from a slave caravan, and he told us 
that he had always picked up any remnants of food that 
might have been left in the places of encampment after 


the departure of caravans. He had passed his nights 
on a tree, in the branches of which he had arranged his 
bed. He joined us on our march, but died soon after 
of small-pox, to which disease more people of my small 
caravan had to succumb. 

On April 4 I despatched some men to the Tangan- 
yika to announce my arrival, and beg for admission 
from the English missionaries, who had formerly been 
settled on this side of the lake, and had now taken up 
their abode in the isle of Kawala. 

On the 6th we completed our march through the 
monotonous forests of Ubujive, and the smooth surface 
of the Tanganyika Lake put us pleasantly in mind of 
the sea. We halted close to the beach at the part of 
Mtoa, where there were several dhows which had been 
brought from Ujiji by Arabs, bound for the Lualaba ; 
these were now to take up a slave caravan that was in 
waiting. This lake is the cause of many a sacrifice of 
human life. The small sailing vessels from Ujiji are so 
crammed with people that in bad weather, which in the 
rainy season often sets in with thunderstorms, tiiose in 
charge of them are frequently obliged to throw a 
number of slaves overboard, so as to save at least part 
of them. It is a fact that on such an occasion lately 
an Arab had twelve slaves thrown overboard so as to 
save his two valuable Maskat donkeys. 

On the evening of the 6th, Mr. Larson, from the 
mission in Kawala, arrived at the |)ort, bringing a kind 
letter of welcome from Mr. Horn. Mr. Horn's wife 
and child were ill, and consequently he was prevented 
from coming himself. On the 7th we sailed in a dhow 


chartered by an Arab, and after a two hours' sail along 
the beautifully situated port of Kawala, we reached 
the missionary station, where we were kindly made 
welcome and lodged as comfortably as could be 
managed in a newly-established station. 




Warning against going to the coast— At Ujiji— My going to tlie south — 
My exliausted Bah^ba left with the missionaries — The lake and its 
discharge — Night journeys— Storm— Mpala— Correct proceeding of 
the missions— Galula's death —Leopards— Baboons — Progress by land 
— Water banks —Flight of some carriers— Superstition— Extortions — 
Wawemba nnirderers — Scotch mission — Mr. Bain on ethnology — On 
the Nyassa — Clouds of insects. 

The first thing I learned from Mr. Horn was that dis- 
turbances were apprehended on the coast. He ascribed 
this danger to the advance of the German East African 
Society, which — a piece of news to me — had recently 
been formed and had settled on the coast. The Germans 
were said to be overbearing and domineering over the 


natives and Arabs, without having the power to impose 
their superiority. He said that the Arabs were in- 
furiated by the Germans, and that in a short time the 
discontent would break into open rebeUion. They were 
especially angry that the Sultan (Said Bargash) should 
have resigned lands to the Germans, and in consequence 
they threatened to renounce their allegiance to the 
former. The skirmish on Staidey Falls, too, had aggra- 
vated their bad feeling towards the Europeans. He 
said that at that time Tabora, where not long ago a 
German had been murdered, was the principal seat of 
discontent. Mr. Horn warned me, if I were going to 
the coast, not to take the main road by Tabora ; the 
only open one, which the missionaries also availed them- 
selves of. was across the Nyassa and Shire. 

I did not make any plans for the present, as I 
wanted to learn particulars at Ujiji as to whether there 
would be any possibility, if I started north of the Tan- 
ganyika, of reaching Albert Lake, and the European 
(Emin Bey) who had been driven thither with many 
troops and great stores of ivory. 

And now, without any stoppage, and favoured by 
the wind, I crossed over to Ujiji, which I reached after 
an hour and a half's sail. I knew the two principal 
Arabs at ITjiji, named Xasorro bin Zef and Mohammed 
bin Half an, as I had travelled with them on former 
occasions. Their reception of me was civil, but cool. 
These two, from their ^Doint of view, corroborated all 
I had learned from Mr. Horn. I turned the conversa- 
tion to Emin Bey, of whom they did not know any par- 
ticulars ; on the other hand, thev told me that a German 


from there had come, some months ago, with j)lenty of 
ivory, to Tabora, and reached the coast together with 
Tibbu Tibb. This was Dr. Junker. 

On asking how I could possibly get to Emin from 
the north of the Tanganyika, I w^as told that such a 
thing was out of the question, the tribes north of the 
Tanganyika, the Wasongora Mino, being numerous and 
warlike ; nor could I avoid Unioro, whose king, Kaba 
Eega, was at war there with the whites. They could not 
supply me with any people, having just sent large cara- 
vans to the coast ; and last, not least, they refused to 
advance me a laro-e sum of monev which I should have 
needed in order to buy from them arms, ammunition, 
and stuffs for a new expedition. They considered the 
understanding with the Europeans so unsatisfactory 
that a war might possibly break out, in which case they 
thought they would lose their money. 

I found them willing for a heavy sum — knowing 
how greedy the Arabs are after English gold, I always 
carried some with me for any cases of emergency — to 
provide me with a vessel for the journey to the south 
of the Tanganyika, since even they did not consider it 
advisable to go to the coast by way of Tabora, wdiere 
war was ra^ino- between the oreat chief Sicke and the 
Arabs. It was with "reat reluctance that I thus oave 
up any further attempt to be of direct use to the Congo 
State, and decided upon sailing down the Tanganyika 
on the side of the Congo State, and going to the coast 
by way of Nyassa, Shire, and Zambesi. 

On making inquiries about a journey to Emin Bey, 
I learned that the Arabs had advanced to the north of 


the Tanganyika and founded settlements on Kiwu Lake, 
which was said to be five days' journey north of the 
Tanganyika and to have two discharges, one into Tan- 
ganyika and another to the west into the Lualaba. 
Three days' journey farther north was, as I ascertained, 
Akaniaru Lake, the country surrounding which was 
said to be beautiful and rich in abundance of water and 
grass. The natives were reported to own many valu- 
able kinds of cattle. 

Ujiji had lost much of its importance ; the greatest 
attraction at present came from the rich resources of 
Mitamba, i.e. the countries from Nyangwe down the 
Lualaba, which Tibbu Tibb had been the first Arab to 
invade when accompanying Stanley. Everyone was 
going to Mitamba, there being jDlenty of ivory, and the 
natives of those parts still carrying spears and bows, in 
consequence of which it was easy to conquer them. 

Since my last sojourn here, the Tanganyika had? fallen 
above a metre, and consequently the anchorage ground 
was pushed far out. I chartered a manned dhow, pur- 
chased 550 dollars' worth of goods for the journey from 
the Tanganyika to JSTyassa, and on the 11th I crossed 
over from Ujiji to Kawala, where I had left Bugslag 
and my people. Our vessel was so old and so full of 
vermin, that I turned back after an hour's sail, in order 
to exchange it for another that had just come in. This 
boat was built after the European fashion and was a 
good sailer. So I did not set sail till the 12th, in the 
evening of which day I cast anchor off Cape Kabogo, 
where I passed the night. Twice we were roused by 
the near roaring of a lion and by natives approaching 


our fire ; they were probably bent on theft, but, on 
hearing the cHcking of the gun-barrels, they quickly 
disappeared. Next day I crossed the lake. I was 
greatly astonished to observe a number of sea-nettles 
surrounding our boat for about half an hour. They 
were transparent, of the shape of a disk and like a 
mark-piece in size ; round the edge was a milky circle, 
hanging down in fibres, by means of which they swam. 
Though the Malagarassi, the chief tributary of the 
Tanganyika, contains a good deal of salt, one cannot 
but call the Tanganyika a fresh-water lake, and in 
such sea-nettles are very seldom seen. I was sorry not 
to have any means of preserving some of these rare 

On the loth I reached Kawala, and at once got 
ready for continuing my journey. My Baluba were 
incapable of accompanying me farther. I might have 
taken some of them with me, but I was unwillino- to 
separate this little band of people. Here, under care 
of the mission, the Baluba were as safe as possible from 
any acts of violence on the part of the Arabs. Here 
they remained, superintended by a white man. Mr. 
Horn suggested that they might earn something by 
serving the mission, and with this view I bought a 
deserted village and a plantation belonging to it, from 
the chief who introduced himself as the owner of the 
island. I left the Baluba fourteen guns, the ammunition 
for which I gave into Mr. Horn's care, twelve goats, a 
number of fowls, salt, pick-axes, hatchets, pots and pans, 
and other utensils. I also gave into the keepino- of one 
of the missionaries beads and stuff, so as to supply them 


with means of obtaining food until their fields should 
yield all they required. The most intelligent of them, 
who had distinguished himself as leader of the Baluba, 
I made chief of this small community, enjoining him 
always to keep to the Europeans, and to ask their 
advice in any difficulties ; if he found an opportunity 
of joining a reliable caravan bound for his country he 
was to do so. As I conjectured that the Congo State 
would soon build a station at this lake, its eastern 
boundary, I regarded these Baluba, each of whom had 
his wife with him, as a select tribe of people standing 
apart from the rest of the population. Consequenth^ 
the chief was instructed to offer his services and those of 
his people, should a station under the star-flag be estab- 
lished anywhere on the lake. The soil at Kawala was 
apparently good, the lake abounded with fish, the main- 
land was easy of access in a small canoe, and, the 
channel between the mainland and the island being well 
sheltered, there was plenty of game, so that, as regards 
the future of my people, I continued my journey with- 
out any anxiety. Three bulls, which naturally could 
not be taken in the small vessel, I assigned to the 
mission, requesting that they might be placed at the 
disposal of any European. 

Now commenced the shipping of the few loads 
that I still possessed, and general preparations for the 
journey. I, Bugslag, ten coast negroes with four 
women and two little dogs, one a terrier and the other 
a cross-breed of a terrier and African pariah dog, and 
the boatmen, formed the new suite. 

On April 15 we took leave of Mr. Horn, his brave 


wife — the first white Lady who had ventured so far into 
the Dark Continent — and the other gentlemen of the 
mission, to whom we were greatly indebted for their 
kind reception. We reached Lukuga Bay by the aid of 
a good breeze ; nearly all my people were sea-sick, as 
we encountered such breakers as rarely occur in an 
inland sea. This lake, surrounded by high banks, 
extendino- nearly eio-hty German miles from south to 
north, experiences for almost half the year southerly 
winds, which are always very high in the daytime, while 
they calm down in the evening and cease altogether at 
night. During this time, however, there is an uninter- 
rupted gale from the south, which often proves fatal to 
small vessels. 

The Lukuga, an effluent of the Tanganyika, carries 
more water out of the lake into the Lualaba than the 
Malagarassi and the numerous lesser affluents annually 
supply. The level of the lake consequently sinks about 
two feet annually. This will last. until the water-mark 
of the lake is on a level with the bottom of the Lukusfa 
bed, when the discharge must cease. Sand-downs, 
stretching along near the bank of the Lukuga, cause 
the bed of the river, as soon as it is dry, to be filled up 
with sand and particles of vegetation carried down b}'' 
brooks, falling into the Lukuga more quickly than the 
rising of the Tanganyika. After twenty 3^ears' continual 
rising, the discharge being stopped, the level of the lake 
has again attained such a height that it overflows the 
level of the filled-up bed of the Lukuga, and thus 
forcibly breaks open the old discharging channel. 
Stanley in 1874 found no effluent, whilst I in 1882 


found the Lukuga to be a wide, rapid effluent of the 
Tanganyika. Thus, between Stanley's and my visit, the 
lake has swollen so much as to force open its old 
channel of exit. Now again I found that the con- 
stantly falling lake was lower by sixteen feet than the 
highest water-mark which could be discerned. This 
periodical rising and falling of the lake naturally causes 
the banks to change, which is a great detriment to navi- 
gation. At a later time, when the civilisation of Africa 
shall have so progressed that it may have a regular 
system of navigation, there will l3e no difficulty in regu- 
lating the water-mark of the lake by a flood-gate at the 
effluence of the Lukuga. My boatmen from Ujiji well 
knew these peculiar occurrences on the Lukuga, but 
were not able to find out the cause. 

The Wajiji are very skilful sailors ; they know all 
about wind and weather, which is however easy enough, 
considering the great regularity of meteorological phe- 
nomena here. They know every part, every stone; they 
keep on a good footing with the people on the river- 
side, and know how to manage sails and oars. After 
making our boat cut through the surge, which was 
effected with difficulty, we pitched our camp near the 
Lukuga under the overhanging wall of a rock. 

When bathinglwas struck by the great regularity with 
which the rubble-stones had arranged themselves near 
the shore. Large stones covered the beach, smaller 
pebbles were disposed under the shallow water, whilst 
lower down I discovered gravel, and at last sand. The 
water of the lake is clear, of a somewhat brackish taste, 
caused, I suppose, by its saline contents. The banks 

,i Jil 

H ■ 



are covered with many different shells. Sea-gulls were 
very plentiful, whereas I saw fresh-water birds only 
near the mouths of rivers and brooks. These were 
the only spots where we found hippopotami and cro- 
codiles, which are said to venture exceptionally far 
into the lake. I agreed with the guide of my Wajiji 
to travel henceforth only in the night-time. During 
the day we had to encounter high breakers and a smart 

.^r-^"^ - »;*?/^.^ 


breeze, which made rowing very difficult. To tack 
against the south wind would have detained us too long. 
In the evening, as I mentioned above, it generally grew 
calmer, or a gentle land breeze would set in, enabling 
us to sail along the coast southward. Towards the 
morning of the 17th we reached the mouth of the 
Euhega river, with a labyrinth of islets and banks, of 
lagoons and channels. Birds were very plentiful and 



crocodiles were abundant. The banks reached pretty 
regularly a height of from 100 to 150 metres. The 
slopes displayed savannahs of trees and underwood, 
while the ravines, reaching down into the lake, were 
thickly wooded. Population seemed to be scanty ; while 
game, chiefly antelopes, were now and then observed 
near the water. 

We always proceeded on our nocturnal journeys 
until the smart morning breeze set in, when we sought 
refuge in a sheltering part and rested until the abating 
of the wind permitted us to continue our journey. 
Since no bodily exertion was required for the journey, 
and our people could sleep in the boat, our progress 
depended only on the weather. Bugslag and I took 
turns at steering. The setting in of the southern breeze, 
often very stormy, was repeatedly very strange in 
appearance. For example, on the morning of the 18th 
an immense cloud in the shape of a cylinder came rolling 
towards us. Short showers followed this, accompanied 
by a whistling wind. Several times we were able to 
move on in the afternoon and till dawn the next day. 

Our Wajiji would sometimes throw beads and pieces 
of stuff into the water in order to pacify the water-spirit. 
When the weather was calm, and I forced them to take 
the oars, they would wheeze like German water-rats. 
As the thunder-storms during the rainy season often 
bring violent gales in their train, a vessel used on the 
Tanganyika should be a thoroughly seaworthy ship. 
The steamer belonging to the mission, which was being 
finished in the port of Kawala, was suitable enough in 
its construction, though I do not approve of the system. 


which was that of a saiHng vessel with an auxiUary 
engine. I should prefer a proper steamer, which at the 
same time would permit the setting of sails. Within 
200 metres off the coast we found the water deep and 
bare of stones or banks ; it was only near the mouths 
of rivers that we had to keep farther out. The anchor- 
age ground consisted mostly of sand or rubble-stones. 

And now I must once more avail myself of the 
opportunity to point out that for civilisation and the 
suppression of the slave trade this lake would be of 
the greatest importance. A steamer carrying a small 
number of guns and fifty soldiers would be well able to 
block up the lake and would suffice to support stations 
on the banks. Such a boat would keep a station from 
starvation, being able to furnish it with provisions from 
every part of the lake. If only every Arab vessel 
putting into any other than one of the few permitted 
stations were destroyed, there would be no difficulty in 
limiting the communication on the lake to places easy 
of control. Any hiding of vessels is out of the question 
with those open banks. 

On the 19tli we reached the former station of the 
Congo State, Mpla, now taken possession of by the 
Algerian mission ; we had shortly before sought shelter 
close to the land, on account of heavy storms, a rough 
sea, and waterspouts. On entering the Lufuku, the 
port of the station, the high surge caused a great deal 
of water to be washed on board. 

We were most kindly received by Peres Landeau 
and Moinit and Captain Joubert, whom I had known 


formerly. Through a long village, inhabited by ran- 
somed people belonging to the mission, we passed 
into the temba, built of very thick clay walls, and 
capable of being well fortified. Great order and proofs 
of diligent labour met the eye everywhere ; practical 
o'ood sense and knowledofe were noticeable in all the 

In the afternoon the chapel was filled with 200 people, 
and the religious worship, the singing and praying, 
proceeded without a fault. The plantations and gardens 
of the mission must answer every purpose. Barley and 
rice were thriving well. The greatest drawback of the 
station was its position, there being no port ; for the 
beach and the shallow mouth of the Lufuku were con- 
stantly under breakers, and the defensible building was 
too far from the beach to maintain a safe connection 
with any vessel. The good understanding with the 
natives was of great advantage for this mission. It 
had been established by the last chief of the Congo 
State station. Captain Storms, and by prudence and 
energy had been kept up ever since. Captain Joubert, 
the present chief, had of late repeatedly defended the 
natives against slave-traders, and, supported by natives 
and fifty armed men of the station, he had vanquished 
and punished several such hordes. Such success could 
only have the best results. When a European proves to 
be not only a missionary but at the same time a defender 
of the liberty and property of the natives, he cannot 
fail to be looked up to. Now I greatly regretted not 
having brought my Baluba here, but such an increase 
of their proteges being very desirable to the heads of the 


station, I gave them a letter to Mr. Horn, whom I 
requested to effect the transport of the Baluba from 
Kawahi to this place. 

The mission having for the present only taken 
charge of the station, which was still the property of the 
Congo State, it was not only desirable, but my duty to 
instal here the people who had been ransomed by means 
of the King of the Belgians and who had hitherto been 
maintained by him. 

After having amply supplied ourselves with provi- 
sions, we continued our journey on the 21st. After dark 
we met a vessel in which I recognised a European, 
We went on board, and I greeted Pere Drommeau, whom 
I had likewise met before, and who was coming from 
Karema, a station on the eastern bank of the Tanganyika 
belonging to the same mission. 

Next morning, when we dropped anchor on account 
of the south wind, one of our men suddenly burst 
into loud lamentations. On going to awake his wife 
Galula from a deep sleep, he had discovered that she 
was dead. The poor woman had suffered from sea- 
sickness throughout our journey ; she was so much 
weakened that for some days she had eaten nothing, and 
had been lying half asleep in continual apathy. On 
my suggestion that she should remain at the mission at 
Mpla, she had replied, ' How am I, then, to meet again 
my friends on the Lulua, if you want to leave me here ? ' 
As we could not detect any cause for her death, I con- 
jectured that gradual weakening through sea-sickness 
had been the reason. We dug a grave for poor Galula, 
and marked the spot by a number of large stones. 


which we built up in the form of a cross. The loss of 
our ever cheerful and industrious friend Galula was 
much lamented by us all. 

When we had pitched our camp there arose such a 
storm on the night of the 23rd that it blew my tent 
down. The thunderstorms began to be more violent 
and frequent. When we resumed our journey we 
sailed for three hours through yellow-tinted water ; 
the colour was owing to small flakes, probably the seeds 
of a water plant. The banks became more rocky and 
picturesque ; huge boulders forming high precipices 
caused immense breakers. From the boat we observed 
a couple of leopards with two cubs basking on one of 
the rocks. I landed with Bugslag, but we missed the 
chance of firing at them by trying to creep closer along ; 
the handsome creatures had disappeared in the maze 
of rocks. Vexed at our failure, we were just about to 
return, when deep below us among the rubble we dis- 
tinctly heard the mewing of the young leopards, but 
could not in any way succeed in getting at them. 

The banks grew more and more splendid. Im- 
mense pillars projected into the deep green water ; 
passages and caves more than ten metres high opened 
out below the rocks. The wild scenery, now and again 
interrupted by luxuriant vegetation in connection with 
the conformations of the rocks, presented a striking 
picture. A herd of about 100 baboons suffered us to 
pass them without showing any more irritation than 
the short disconnected tones of surprise peculiar to 
them, which resemble the startled cry of a roebuck. 
By shooting into the water, not at the monkeys — for 



ever since I saw a large a^^e in the agony of death I have 
entirely lost my taste for such animal hunts — a most 
ridiculous scene was brought about. Shrieks, bark- 
ing, and quarrelling pro- 
ceeded from each throat 
of this young party. The 
strange figures, among 
which we were struck 
by some species of near- 
ly double the ordinary 
size, waddled and gal- 
loped in grotesque leaps 
up the precipice, and a 
shower of rubble and 
stones, among them boul- 
ders of several hundred- 
weight, kept tumbling 
down to us into the lake. 
Our people roared with 
laughter, and would have 
it that the monkeys had 
aimed at us. For further 
observation I shot once 
more, and again a shower 
of stones pelted down 
upon us, so that I felt 
inclined to agree with 
the Wajiji; for the number of stones was too great to 
have rolled down accidentally under the movements of 
the flying monkeys. 

In the sj)lendidly clear waters, in which we could see 



stones at about fifteen metres' distance, we noticed great 
abundance of fish, by wliicli our Wajiji greatly profited. 

The more we approached the south end of the lake 
the more the wind turned to the east. In spite of the 
area of the breakers getting smaller and smaller, the 
sea, nearly to the southern extremity of the lake, was 
very boisterous. 

On the 24th, at the mouth of the Lunangua, we met 
natives with goods and chattels, and numerous canoes, 
apparently in the act of leaving the neighbourhood. 
We learned that the rapacious expeditions of an Arab 
were the cause of their flight, but that they would 
return to their villages as soon as the banditti should 
have retreated. Wherever we had happened to come 
upon natives they had met us kindly and pacifically, 
selling food, chiefly fish, to us at a low price. The 
lower we came south, the steeper were the slopes falling 
into the lake ; but we rarely found a position suitable 
for a camp in narrow places, covered with stones, 
pebbles, or sand. Any cultivation of these slopes was, 
of course, not to be thought of ; the liea^^y rains would 
wash everything away. For this reason, the banks are 
very thinly populated. 

On the 29th, south of the mouth of the Lufuwu, in 
a sheltered part, we came to the end of our journey, the 
road from the Nyassa terminating on the Tanganyika. 
So it had only taken us fifteen days to travel a distance 
of about 375 kilometres, with the help of the oars and 
a land breeze, mostly blowing in the night only. Ac- 
cording to an arrangement with Mr. Horn, we were here 
to find one of his boats, whose occupants, familiar with 


the local state of affairs, were to hire some carriers from 
me. The boat having left the same morning to buy 
provisions, we had to wait, and pitched our camp in a 
bpot where there had formerly been a missionary station, 
which now was only to be recognised by the grave of a 
European. I sent back the sailing vessel, while we 
passed our time hunting in this district, which abounded 
with antelopes and buffaloes. 

On May 3 the promised boat arrived with seven 
carriers and the message that the rest would come by 
land. Soon after, a troop of five men arrived, then 
another of ten ; they waited for two days, and then left 
again to fetch the others ; in short, we had to furnish 
ourselves with African patience, until at last I succeeded 
in assembling the thirty missing carriers on the evening 
of the 9tli. On the eve of our start the Marungu — 
to which tribe the peoj^le belonged — performed their 
war-dances. They killed some goats to brace them- 
selves for the march, and on the 10th we at length 
moved on towards the ISTyassa. 

From Niumkorlo on the lake we ascended the steep 
and rocky slope ; we passed the Nunsua and Manbesi, 
and encamped in the wilderness in a meadow pleasantly 
relieved by an immeasurable tree-savannah. The rainy 
season having set in, many water-courses were rushing 
down to the lake in magnificent cascades, which, wher- 
ever they came to a standstill, formed bogs and pools, 
and so afforded a favourite resort for buffaloes. 

Guinea-fowls were very plentiful, and for the last 
few days had rarely been wanting on board. I never 
saw wild grapes so large and sweet as tliey were here. 



On the second day's march we had gained the sum- 
mit of the plateau, and after a very fatiguing journey 
encamped near a small lake named Kiila, which, 1,500 
metres in length and 1,000 metres in breadth, lay sur- 
rounded by rushes in the midst of the forest. 

Among the reeds and small grass bunches surround- 


ing the bog we noticed many water-rams, Bugslag and 
I hit four of them ; they were severely wounded, but 
escaped without our being able to secure them. The 
terrain being quite open and level, we ascertained that 
the antelopes did not get away, but remained in the 
bog ; but though half of the carriers searched it they 
found nothing. The natives said that this antelope, 



which hves ahnost exclusively near the water, would 
dip under if hit ; at any rate, the animals knew how to 
hide in the boggy terrain among the reeds, so that they 
appeared to be swallowed up. The little lake was about 
200 metres above the level of the Tanganyika. 

On the 12th we passed the Bississi and Mapensa, two 


villages strongly fortified with palisades. Near them 
we noticed small hills covered with a kind of pavilion, 
lurking-places whence the surrounding country was 
watched by outposts. These high tomb-like mounds 
are formed by all the village people carrying their 
refuse to the same place. 

On the morning of the 13 th I was surprised by the 


disagreeable news that sixteen carriers, who, like the 
rest, had received half of their wages in advance, had 
deserted. I succeeded in hiring people from Kitim- 
bue, who engaged to carry our loads to the camp 
of a Beloochee, Kahunda, which we were to reach 
that day. But on approaching another village, with 
whose inhabitants our new carriers were at enmity, 
they also threw down their loads and fled. The camp 
of the Beloochee being only a few hours distant, I 
sent Fickerini with two of my Angola people to 
Kahunda, requesting him to furnish me with carriers. 
In the afternoon my messengers returned with thirty 
savao^e Euga-Euo-a, i.e. Waniamwesi soldiers. On their 
approach the inhabitants of the village where I en- 
camped took up arms and opposed this horde of the 
slave-catcher. I at once rushed among the natives, and 
promised them that the Euga-Euga should not enter 
their village. I took the latter to my camp, where I at 
once distributed the loads and started. 

In the evenino- we reached a villao-e where Kahunda 
had settled. He was a deserted soldier of the Sultan 
Said Bargash, and was on his way to purchase ivory and 
slaves west of the Tanganyilva. He had settled down 
here, having got up a quarrel with the natives, from 
whom, after defeating them, he wanted to extort 
tribute. Each of the 300 savage Euga-Euga, armed 
with spear and bow, wore ornaments of plumes and a 
scarlet cloak, a dress which was admirably adapted for 
enabling them to make an intimidating impression on 
the natives. Kahunda knew Eeichardt, from whom he 
had learned much about the abundance of o'old in the 


country of tlie Katanga under their chief Msiri. After 
increasing his numbers by allying himself with other 
Arabs, he proposed going thither to find gold. 

Kahunda first promised to let me have carriers next 
day, but when it came he revoked his promise, as he 
felt induced to attack a neighbouring village, whence a 
man in the shape of a lion had carried off one of his 
people. The belief that human beings can assume the 
shape of wild beasts is universal in Africa. Whenever 
anybody is torn by a beast of prey, they find out by 
some manipulation who has been the sorcerer who had 
changed him into a wild beast. On a former occasion, 
in a conversation with Tibbu Tibb, who is on the whole 
rather enlio-htened, I was astonished to find him clinoino- 
to this superstition. Cases like this are often an occa- 
sion of war in Africa. 

For some time past I had been suffering from 
feverish attacks, with excessive shivering. The scanty 
unvaried food, but chiefly the mental strain during our 
march west of the Lualuba, had brought my constitu- 
tion very low. 

On my urging a start, an Arab, a business con- 
nection of Kahunda's, likewise bound for the Nyassa, 
offered to supply the desired number of people. T 
bought a saddle-donkey of Kahunda, as my bodily weak- 
ness forbade my walking so long a distance. The donke}^ 
was such a wreck that I had to give it back next day, 
and the Angola people made a hammock for me in case 
of exhaustion. Kahunda told me of the murder of the 
German Giesecke at Ilnianjembe, and maintained that 
Tibbu Tibb had been in the plot, or at any rate had been 


aware of it. He said that Tibbu Tibb might have pre- 
vented it, which to anyone acquainted with African affairs 
is quite obvious. The reason for this statement against 
one of his own faith was, that Tibbu Tibb a few months 
before had forced Kahunda, on one of his expeditions 
along the coast, to pay him five elephant tusks for 
having pillaged one of his villages. This shows that even 
then Tibbu Tibb was powerful enough to extend his 
plundering raids to coasters, petty Arabs, and Beloo- 
chees. In return for high pay, the Arab friend of 
Kahunda engaged himself to accompany me with his 
people, so that after all I was able to start on the 15th. 
We passed the Saise river, which flows down to the Eiqua 
or Kuqua Lake, and marched through an entire plain, 
covered with short grass, here and there abounding with 
antelopes, to the village of Munieama. 

Since leaving the Tanganyika we had not seen the 
sun ; the sky had always been clouded, a misty rain 
had fallen incessantly, and the weather had been very 
cold. Munieama, like all the villages we passed, was 
built close to the waterside, and had wells inside the 
solid palisades that surrounded it. Double doors with 
small openings led into the interior. The round clay 
houses were surrounded by a circular half-closed ve- 
randah, covered with a far-projecting thatched roof. 
Storehouses, raised high on account of the damp, con- 
tained maize, millet, potatoes, and pea-nuts. Manioc 
is not grown, and the corn, rubbed between hollow 
stones, is not pounded. 

We were now in the Mambue country, the people 
of which are always in a state of hostility with the 


rapacious Wawemba, who live farther south. Ahiiost 
every large village in these parts has forty to fifty cows 
and nearly 200 goats. During this journey I saw for 
the first time traces of the rhinoceros, the zebra, and the 

Now commenced the numerous petty inconveniences 
which a traveller is exposed to in the border countries, 
and which were of course avoided when travelling with 
my Bashilange and my veterans. Premature demands 
for food and extortions of all kinds on the part of the 
carriers, begging supported by threats by the chiefs, and 
— the worst of all — extortions on the part of the Arab 
who accompanied me — all these were troubles that almost 
overwhelmed me in my then weak state. The Arab 
first asked for my revolver and my rifle, and, on my not 
granting his request, he flatly refused to accompany me 
any longer with his followers, so that once more I had 
twenty loads on my hands without carriers. When 
he actually prepared to carry his intention into effect, 
nothing was left me but to give what he asked. I sent 
him my revolver, instructing Fickerini to tell him that 
I had not before known that an Arab would stoop to 
beg like a negro chief. He sent back the revolver, and 
then we started. 

After this we entered the river system of the Cham- 
bese (river), the largest tributary of the Bangueolo Lake. 
Thus, in a space of ten hours' march, we had touched 
the aflluents of three lakes, first that of the Tanganyika, 
then of the Eiqua, and finally of the Bangueolo, without 
having crossed an elevation of only a few metres' height 
which served as a separation. 


After the 18tli the results of the nefarious traffic in 
human beings, in the shape of burnt villages, fields laid 
waste, and human skulls lying on the road, again began 
to meet our eyes. The Arabs on Lake Nyassa are the ori- 
ginators of the local slave-hunt. They very seldom come 
up here themselves, but they have their go-betweens 
in the savao^e hordes of Uemba. The inhabitants of 
this country, the Wawemba, who formerly, under the 
notorious chief Kitimkuru, were its terror, now con- 
tinued their doings under his son. The Wawemba 
convey their goods to the Nyassa, and there sell them in 
the settlements of the Arabs in exchange for guns and 
ammunition. According to custom, they only bring 
women and children ; the men are invariably killed 
and beheaded. Among the Wawemba there exists a 
perfectly developed rank, determined by the number of 
heads of the enemies they have killed. This was the 
reason that we often saw human skeletons, but never 
skulls. The Arabs bring their slaves across the Nyassa, 
thence chiefly to the Lindi, Kilwa, and Mikindani, but 
rarely farther south, so that the slave coast of Africa is 
the coast of German East Africa from Mikindani up to 
Tanga. Only a few days before, a horde of Wawemba 
had passed this road, and we repeatedly found fresh 
traces of their presence. The consequence was, that 
my people marched in close formation and would not 
leave the camp. 

On our meeting a caravan bound for the Tanganyika, 
some of my native carriers again tried to make their 
escape. Being prepared for this, I had them seized. T 
then deprived them of their arms, and those not to be 


depended on I had tied together and watched by some 
Angola people : for in this district, for the most part 
laid waste, I shonld have been unable to hire new 
carriers, not to speak of those I had having been paid 
for their services to the Nyassa. 

A daily pleasant change of scene was caused by 
frequent little cupolas of the height of a barrow, dis- 
playing huge blocks of Plutonic rocks and massive 
bits of rubble. Among them, a close growth of trees 
formed little bowers in the plain, which, however, was 
chiefly covered only with short grass. The brooks be- 
came muddy and the low land round them was covered 
with dark emerald grass, under whose surface was of 
course an unfathomable slough. On the 21st, stony hills 
mantled with wood savannahs interrupted the mono- 
tonous prairie. These were the heights forming the par- 
tition between the Lualaba, the Congo, and the Zambesi ; 
for on the slopes on this side the network of brooks fell 
into the Loange, a tril^utary of the Zambesi. Since 
setting foot on the African continent this time I had 
traversed the Congo territory to almost its greatest 

We were surprised by frequently finding natives 
encamped before their hidden villages, ready for war or 
flight ; they were expecting an attack of the Wawemba at 
any moment. Women and children always slej)t in the 
wood, and did not return to the village before morning, 
for the Wawemba rarely attack by day, while the 
negroes seldom engage in any enterprise by night, but 
usually choose the morning hour. The poor creatures 
always took similar measures of precaution when any 


Wawemba were reported to be near. These villages 
reminded me of the ostrich, which, when pursued, hides 
its head that it may not be seen. The villages are 
built with strong palisades in the closest thickets, where 
certainly an approach is made difficult; but those 
approaching cannot be detected, nor can the palisades 
be defended. I wondered that the inhabitants of these 
parts did not seek another home, instead of remaining 
here to be hunted like wild beasts, and not for one 
moment sure of their freedom or their lives. 

The Arab of my suite, whose men were carrying the 
greater number of the loads, hindered me on the pretence 
of the over-fatigue of his people, thus forcing me re- 
peatedly to arrange days of rest ; so that I did not 
reach Mwena Wanda, a Scotch missionary station, till 
the 26th. Mr. Bain, the head of the station, gave me 
a very kindly welcome, and at once began medical treat- 
ment, as I suffered greatl}'' from sciatica and from sleep- 
less nights. Besides, fever set in again with obstinate 

But a few days before the Wawemba had attacked 
villages only ten kilometres off the station ; they had 
killed thirty men and carried off almost all the women 
and children. 

What o-ood can natives derive from stations that 
demand enormous sums to convert them to Chris- 
tianity, when they cannot even defend their lives, 
their freedom, and their property? How is it 
possible that savages who are daily, hourly anxious 
about their lives and property can open their hearts 
to the doctrines of Christianity? Would it not be a 


mucli more useful work, with tlie means that are 
spent on the missions, to found stations which, in the 
first instance, would offer protection to the natives, 
hunted like beasts of prey ? The Africans call all their 
superiors ' father ' ; they would show themselves much 
more docile to the teaching of the European if they 
felt they were dependent on him for the means of pro- 
tection. The missionaries here were alwaj^s ready to 
escape by flight from a possible attack of the Wawemba ; 
they had even been negotiating with the natives about 
the direction of their flis^ht. 

My opinion on this question was supported by the 
Scotch missionaries, whose impartial judgment and 
practical views made me rate them much higher than 
many English missionaries with whom I had come in 

I found Mr. Bain to be a very good observer. He 
was kind enough to enlighten me from his treasure of 
ethnological observations about various things which, 
chiefly referring to the Wawemba, the Wakonde, and 
the Wawiwa, I will mention here. 

The Wakonde burn their corpses three days after 
death, life having then without any doubt fled from the 
body ; the ashes are collected into small jars and pre- 
served by the family. These tribes often also dissect 
their dead, especially if the reason for death is not quite 
clear. They open the stomach with a piece of palm 
bark, and examine its walls and contents. 

The Wawemba bury their dead, but in the course 
of three days they open the grave, take out the corpse, 
and completely dissect it; they cut the flesh off the 

T 2 


bones, and after having anointed the latter with oil they 
scatter them in the savannah. 

A kind of ordeal, such as I have found to be exten- 
sively practised in Inner Angola, is frequently used here 
for settling disputes. If any offence is to be investigated, 
all the persons in question are assembled in a circle. The 
chief takes up a wooden instrument exactly resembling 
the toy known among our children as a ' Soldaten- 
schere.' Wliile repeating the nature of the offence, this 
' Soldatenschere ' makes its apparently automatic move- 
ments, then suddenly folding up hits the breast of the 

In order to search for stolen objects they make use 
of a board with a handle at each end. Two persons sus- 
pected of theft are compelled to take hold of the handle 
crosswise, and are led by the judge to the place where 
the stolen article is supposed to be hid. The two, in a 
bent attitude, are made to move the board close along 
the ground or the wall of the hut. The evil conscience 
of one of the two is noticed by the other in his move 
ment when approaching the hidden object, and, in 
order to be released from suspicion, the former calls 
the judge's attention to this circumstance. 

In accordance with the habit in West Africa, it is 
customary among these tribes to settle a dispute between 
two persons by drinking a poisonous draught. There is 
a certain poisonous bark which, boiled in water and 
millet beer, rarely causes death, but either instant vomit- 
ing or violent swelling of the stomach and great pain. 
The two persons in question have to drink of this beve- 
rage, and the one who vomits is cleared of the suspicion. 


The succession to the dignity of chief does not pass 
to the sons of the chief, but to his eldest sister's eldest 
son. If this is not possible, a new chief is elected. 
They assemble, and hold a grand banquet, at which 
much millet beer is drunk, and discuss who is to be 
elected. As soon as the greater number of the drinkers 
are agreed, the whole assembly throw themselves on the 
one selected, seize and bind him and take him into the 
common hut, where he is released from his fetters and 
proclaimed chief. If he shows himself at all timid at 
the sudden and startling attack, or attempts to flee, 
they agree upon some one else. 

The greatest festival of the year, which here, as with 
us, consists of twelve months, is the festival of the new 
fire. Throughout the country the fires are extinguished 
on the eve of the holiday and the ashes carried to a heap 
outside the village. Then a great carousing commences, 
and as soon as the moon has attained a certain height 
the chief begins to make a new fire for the coming year. 
Into a small square board of soft dry wood, which in 
the centre has a little funnel-shaped opening, a span- 
long peg of wood pointed at the end is inserted and 
twirled round by the chief until the soft wood begins 
to glow. The first spark is kindled by vigorous blow- 
ing, and taken up with pieces of tinder by the wives 
of the chiefs, who in their turn distribute them to the 
women pressing around. This fire has to last for the 
next twelve months. 

Polygamy rarely occurs among the tribes I have 
mentioned ; only rich people indulge in the luxury of a 
harem, the number of women in which never exceeds 


tliree. When a girl has developed into a woman, she is 
put into a state of intoxication by strong drinks, painted 
white and red, and laid before the parental hut, so as to 
show the villagers and fellow-tribesmen that they may 
now woo the beauty. A suitor first makes himself known 
to the girl's mother, and in the evening now and again 
throws small presents for her parents into their house. 
If they are thrown out again, the suitor is dismissed ; if 
accepted, he has to continue them until the father and 
mother declare themselves satisfied and consent to the 
wooer fetching their daughter. If the woman objects, 
all the presents or their worth have to be returned ; 
if she consents, she is, with the assistance of other 
young villagers, taken by force from her parents' hut 
at night, and, according to custom, she is brought, 
screaming and struggling, into the hut of her lover, where 
the whole village assembles, singing and drinking. 

Thanks to the kind attention of Mr. Bain, I was 
on the 30th so far recovered from my painful rheuma- 
tism as to be able to continue my journey, though, it is 
true, by means of a litter. Bugslag also suffered from 
constant attacks of dysentery, and was so much weakened 
that we were obliged to use the litter in turns. We 
passed the Lowira or Lowiri, which falls into the JSTyassa, 
and on the 31st encamped near the slope of the plateau 
which precipitately descends into the lake at Mpata, 
being part of the Wakondi country. This was the 
first time that we had found the adansonia in the east 
of the continent since leaving the Lower Cassai. Next 
day we descended the steep edge of the plateau and 
reached the bank of the Nyassa near the station of the 


African Lakes Company, close to the village of the 
chief Karanga. 

For the last three days I had been marching on the 
so-called Stephenson's Eoad, Only the fact that now 
and again the higher trees had been cut in straight lines 
showed that at some time an attempt had been made to 
build a road. The narrow negroes' path wound through 
underwood which had grown up to the height of a man. 
Meanwhile, this attempt at a road, with the English 
claims to the territory, would have rather amused a con- 
noisseur. By this time not a trace will be left of the 
' famous road ' in Inner Africa. 

The difficulty in the way of an ultimate connection 
between the two lakes by a railway will be the slopes of 
the plateaus on the Nyassa and Tanganyika. Both are 
steep and rocky, and that leading to the Tanganyika is 
higher by far than the former, having as it has an abso- 
lute altitude of 300 metres above that of the Nyassa, 
whilst the evenly flat land between the two descends 
very little eastward. 

Two Scotchmen, officials of the commercial company 
I have mentioned, welcomed us, and assigned to us and 
our people a locality for encampment under the beauti- 
ful shady trees, the greatest ornament of the station. 
Besides being engaged in the sale of ivory, the two 
gentlemen were busy as missionaries. They kept a 
small school, where about twenty children were taught, 
and now and then they held a prayer meeting, attended, 
although scantily, by the Wakonde of the immediate 

I was delighted to learn that in a very short time 


the little steamer of the company, the ' Ilala,' was ex- 
pected here, and that I was at liberty, with my few West 
Africans, to continue my journey in it. 

I paid off my carriers, but deducted a small part of 
their wages, since I had found out that they had been 
aware of the flight of their country peoj)le, which had at 
the time so much embarrassed me. 

After several days' fruitless waiting for the Arab 
who had promised to bring my fifteen loads to Karonga, 
I learned that he had gone to an Arab settled south of 
this place, who was here called Mirambo. There he 
again made an attempt at extortion by retaining my 
loads until his demands should be satisfied. In order 
that I might not have to detain the steamer, which might 
arrive at any moment, I granted his request, and duly 
received my loads, which I was astonished not to find 
more diminished. 

There was a strange phenomenon here, in the shape 
of dark, sometimes almost black, clouds which floated 
close above the lake. They turned out to be swarms of 
millions of small flies, here called cungu ; several times 
these swarms were mistaken for the approaching ' Ilala.' 
As soon as these flies have settled on land, tired with 
their flight, the natives collect them, and, after being 
kneaded into a paste and baked like cakes, they form a 
favourite dish. 

Noting down the route of my journey from the Tan- 
ganyika to this place, I came to the conclusion that 
the ISTyassa and the Tanganyika are drawn on the maps 
too closely together. Since my instruments of observa- 
tion had become useless, I was unable to take measure- 


ments of longitude; thus, my conjectures only rest on 
careful calculations of the distances I had travelled. I 
believe the fault is in the Nyassa being placed too far 
to the west ; for the situation of the Tanganyika, through 
repeated observations on the spot, seems to be more to 
be depended on than that of the Nyassa. 

The natives of Konde may be ranked among the Zulu 
tribes ; their language and their manners and customs 
suggest this. Of all the natives I ever met, these 
are the least clothed ; a small rag, or even a bunch of 
leaves, is suspended from their belts in front ; now and 
then I saw quite naked men coming to Karonga from 
villages lying south-west. The weapons of the Wakonde 
are a light, prettily worked javelin and a shield made of 
the skin of the elk antelope. The houses, constructed 
of bent rods and carefully covered with very soft grass, 
have a firm, raised floor. They are almost painfully 
clean. The houses on each side of the road, belted 
by close banana plantations, form large villages. The 
principal food is millet and maize, rarely manioc. 
Bananas and sugar are much cultivated. Nowhere so 
much as in this neighbourhood did I see the natives side 
with the Europeans against the Arabs, who were hated 
everywhere. It was owing to this circumstance that, 
scarcely a year after my leaving, Karonga station was 
able to hold out ao-ainst the attacks of the Arabs. 




The Nyassa — The banks abound m game— The Arabs on the lake — 
Livmgstonia — Shire— Mandala and Blantyre — I am ill — The negroes' 
deficiency in skill — The journey on the Shire resumed — Crocodiles 
and hippopotami — Struggle with a huge heron — Bugslag's true com- 
panionship — Portuguese outpost — The Zambesi — Mrs. Livingstone's 
grave — On the Quaqua — Quilimane — Conclusion. 

On July lltli the 'Ilala' arrived. Two days later I 
went on board with. Bugslag and my faithful attendants 
from the West Coast and left Karans^a. 

The Nyassa, in its shape and situation and mete- 
orological aspects, greatly resembles the Tanganyika. 
Here, as there, a strong south-easterly breeze blows 


continually during the dry season, causing a very rough 
sea ; here, as there, the calm is frequently interrupted 
by thunder-storms, which, however, are said not to be 
accompanied by such gales as are met with on the Tan- 
ganyika. During the rainy season waterspouts are fre- 
quent. Far more rain falls in the peninsulas or promon- 
tories projecting into the lake than farther inland. On 
the whole, more rain falls on the lake than on the coast. 
The Nyassa, as ascertained by twelve years' observa- 
tions of the missionaries, falls 0*9 English foot annually. 
A periodical rising and falling, as on the Tanganyika, 
has not, however, been observed. Navigation on this lake 
is difficult, as the sands reach out to a distance of five 
English miles from the shore while reefs threaten the navi- 
gator for sometimes two English miles off the coast. 
Huge rocks tower here and there from the sandy 
shallows, or form a striking contrast to the light- 
coloured sand beneath the clear water. Contrary to the 
frequently brackish water of the Tanganyika, that of the 
Nyassa is clear and sweet, which accounts for the 
entirely different fauna of the lake. That of the Tan- 
ganyika more nearly resembles that of the sea, while the 
Nyassa is the abode of animals which are observed in 
every fresh-water lake. The beach of the Tanganyika 
is covered with many kinds of shells ; gulls and sea 
swallows sport on the banks, while fresh-water birds are 
only found on the mouths of the rivers. The banks of 
the Nyassa are destitute of shells ; there are no sea- 
nettles, as on the other lake ; and cormorants everywhere 
perch on the bare trees at the waterside — trees that have 
died as a result of the noxious excrement of these 


birds. Where the banks of the Nyassa are unmhabited, 
they display abundance of game. Buffaloes, wild ante- 
lopes, and giraffes are frequent ; and from the mainland 
the sound of the lion's roar, an animal that can live 
only where there is plent}' of game, induced us to un- 
dertake frequent hunting expeditions in places where 
we dropped anchor for cutting wood. 

Bugslag once shot an antelope near the bank, and 
came to the beach to call some people to carry the 
game to the boat. On returning he found only scanty 
remains of the animal, which had been torn to pieces ; 
with difficulty he succeeded in driving away some 
impudent vultures. Traces showed that during his 
absence some hyenas had possessed themselves of the 
prey. In similar cases I have spread my handkerchief 
or part of my clothes on the game, and so caused the 
beasts of prey to be scared away by scenting the 
nearness of man. 

One evening our men, who had been fetching fire- 
wood to the beach, were sitting round the fire they had 
made, when suddenly a buffalo broke from a thicket 
and hurried past them. Immediately behind him two 
lions jumped out, but, frightened by the fire and the 
presence of men, they abstained from pursuing the 
buffalo any farther, and after a short pause retreated 
into the thicket. 

At one point of the lake, where lagoons, intersected 
by jungles and thickets of reeds, stretched for miles 
landwards, we dropped anchor one evening, but could 
scarcely get any sleep on account of the incessant 
roaring and tramping of hundreds of hippopotami which 


in the evenino- excliano-e tlie lagoons for the banks of 

O O O 

the lake. 

Next day I landed with Bugslag and entered upon 
a wilderness, than which a better cannot be imagined 
for the home of the huoe behemoth. Lasfoons, creeks, 
and dried-up watercourses furrowed in inextricable 
lines an either muddy or sandy flat, covered with 
jungle-like reeds or marshy plants. Only the splashing 
of a frightened hippojDotamus, or a short, far-sounding 
bellow, interrupted the deep calm of this pathless wil- 
derness, where only the narrow tunnel-shaped dwellings 
of the huge pachydermata, running through the jungles, 
could be traced. Once, when knee-deep in the water 
in a bent attitude, proceeding under the jungles which 
closed immediately above our heads, we suddenly met 
a gigantic hippopotamus. For a moment the animal 
stopped short, and afterwards, to our great satisfaction, 
broke away in a side direction. After this startling 
encounter we preferred giving up the exploration of 
this wilderness. 

In the south the lake scenery is beautiful. High 
hills advance there close to the bank, tongues of land 
form harbours, and many islands or high reefs of rocks 
break the monotony of the flat banks. The traffic on 
the lake is not so lively as on the Tanganyika. 

On the west coast of the Nyassa are two large 
settlements of slave-traders, Arabs and people of Kilwa 
and Lindi. These Arabs transact their chief business 
with the murderous Wawemba. They supply the latter 
with guns, powder, cloth, and beads, in exchano-e for 
slaves. Ivory is, in proportion, rarely brought here, for 


in tliese latitudes — I may say from the eighth, degree 
south latitude southward — the gun is found throughout 
the continent, and this has immensely decreased the 
number of elephants. Only in large pathless deserts is 
the elephant still found as stationary game. 

Bugslag, in cutting wood for the steamer, came 
upon a large settlement of slave-catchers, those nefa- 
rious vagabonds who depopulate Africa ; the same 
miserable robbers of human flesh and blood, with the 
same insolence and barbarism usual with men of such 
an occupation as in the northern centres of the slave- 
trade. Nay, he was thankful to find himself on board 
again unscathed, for he had been jeered at and 
threatened. Among the local slave-hunters, as well 
as in the north, there seemed to have been a rising 
which threatened to lead to a catastrophe. 

Here I wrote in my journal : ' I believe the safety of 
the missionaries and European traders will not be of long 
duration ; I cannot imagine how Europeans in such a 
barbarous country can think of building settlements 
without fortifying them. It is simply absurd that some 
English missionaries in building stations give orders to 
avoid everything that suggests a fortification. This 
does not make any impression on a native ; on the 
contrary, in this way a white man makes himself unin- 
telliofible and ridiculous to him. He cannot conceive 
why a white man should not look after his own safety ; 
nay, he would only rejoice if a settlement of people 
who only mean to do him good should become to him 
a place of refuge and protect him from the merciless 


Those slave-liuiiters who touch the lake southwards 
mostly take their goods to Mikindani ; those who go 
across in sailing dhows go to Lindi ; while those who go 
round the Northern Nyassa choose the way to Kilwa. 

Besides the station of the Scotch Commercial Com- 
pany, there are two missionary stations on the lake ; 
of these, Bandawe, where I was kindly received by Dr. 
Lars, was by far the best. A number of good buildings 
are here well arranged in the midst of gardens and 

In visiting the schools I counted 130 children, dis- 
tributed in three classes. Our old ' Ilala ' at best not 
going above four knots an hour, and being often even 
compelled to seek shelter off the land on account of the 
stiff breeze and rough sea — the commander of the 
vessel, moreover, being by no means practical, so that, 
if it had been possible, I should have preferred taking 
the command myself — we did not reach the south of 
the lake till the 25tli ; we had thus taken fifteen days 
to go about sixty-five German miles. 

In a harbour much sheltered by islands, we 
dropped anchor off the missionary station Living- 
stonia. This rather neglected station was inhabited by 
only one black schoolmaster. The climate is so fatal 
that the missionary societies have abandoned the idea 
of sending white men or Europeans to this place. A 
very large number of graves bore witness to the un- 
healthy nature of this locality, which in its outer dress 
has been so much favoured by Nature. From the ever- 
smooth deep-blue narrow harbour the mainland soon 
rises to an imposing height, only leaving a short strip of 


level land on the banks. Fan-palms and liuge adan- 
sonias surround the banks, and numerous villages peep 
out of the thickets of bananas. The southern part of 
the lake is rich in fish, and in the evening the great 
number of fishing canoes, lighted up with fires, presented 
a splendid picture. 

On the 26th we entered the affluent of the Nyassa, 
the Shire. This river varies in breadth from eighty to 
one hundred metres, and has at its commencement level 
banks, here and there showing thickets of reeds and 
papyrus. The coasts are densel}^ populated, and when 
busy crossing an apparently much-frequented ferry we 
met a slave caravan with Arabs. This is the most 
southern point visited by Arabs ; farther south and south- 
west the tribes are too numerous and strongly armed to 
make slave-hunting profitable. After some little time the 
Shire falls into a lake of about two German miles in 
length. This is the Pamolondo, which has particularly 
clear water and such an equal depth that we measured 
everywhere almost exactly ten feet. This little lake 
greatly abounds in fish, and never have I seen peli- 
cans in such numbers as here. In the same latitude 
as before the Shire flows out of the small lake. The 
banks of the river change, are less populated, and conse- 
quently abound in game, as does the river itself, which 
swarms with hippopotami and crocodiles. We often 
saw large droves of zebras, and at night frequently heard 
the mighty thundering voice of the lord of the desert. 

On the 28th we reached Mutope, a small station of 
the Commercial Company, and with it for the present 
the end of our journey ; for some way farther down 


rapids and small falls interrupt the navigation of the 
river. From Mutope I sent a short note to the chief 
factory of the said Company to announce my coming, 
and started on the 29th, 

Choosing a broad road with traces of wheels, I rode 
in advance of my troop on a horse sent to meet me, and 
in the afternoon reached Blantyre, the large Scotch 
missionary station, and afterwards Mandala, the station 
of the African Lakes Company. The broad roads, the 
avenues of beautiful lofty trees, mostly eucalyptus, the 
numerous houses, neatly built in European fashion of 
bricks, with glass windows, and surrounded by pretty 
gardens, fields of European corn, and similar signs of 
civilisation, surprising to one coming from the wilderness, 
awakened within me the same comfortable feeling as if 
I had been in Europe. 

These two settlements are the best and most highly 
developed I have seen in Inner Africa. A large number 
of merchants, missionaries, schoolmasters, tradespeople, 
and five ladies, all Scotch by birth, formed a colony 
imposing for these parts, and their looks proved the 
climate to be comparatively healthy. Both stations may 
be considered prominent test stations for this part of the 
tropics, for I could scarcely say what has been un- 
attempted in the way of garden and field culture, 
plantations and cattle breeding. At the missionary 
station, corn, vegetables, and flowers were cultivated, 
and cattle bred, solely for the maintenance of the 
black and white population ; but they had at Mandala, 
after several attempts, fallen back chiefly upon cofiee 
plantations, and had even brought over the necessary 



apparatus for husking and cleaning the coffee. It 
would lead me too far were I to enlarge upon the 
results of the different experiments. But not to give the 
reader a wrong idea of the results of such undertakings, 
I must not omit to mention that large sums of money, 
probably mostly arising from pious legacies, were in- 
vested here without the necessity of obtaining corre- 
sponding interest. An undertaking meant to pay cannot 
from the beginning be furnished with such comfort, I 
might say luxury, as these two stations, one of which, 
the missionary station, was founded and is maintained 
by donations, which, practically speaking, a fond perdu, 
have only been given for converting the heathen to 
Christianity. The African Lakes Company is likewise 
partly a commercial, partly a missionary association, and 
in like manner chiefly subsists upon donations. 

I lay ill at Mandala for more than a week : my 
rheumatism had returned, and I suffered from a tedious 
nervous asthma complicated with attacks of fever. 
Thanks to the excellent treatment of the doctor at the 
missionary station and the nursing at Mandala, I 
recovered so far as. to think of resuming my journey, 
and resolved to wait for the steamer that was expected 
from the Zambesi. But as day after day passed without 
its coming I abandoned this idea, and it suited me all 
the better, as it seemed that the expenses on the boat 
would be too great for my small caravan. On learning 
that a Scotch merchant had come up the river in a large 
rowing boat in order to go farther into the interior on 
trading business, I despatched Bugslag to the river, and 


succeeded in obtaining the boat on condition of leaving 
it on the coast at Quihmane. 

On July 22 I started from Mandala, intending to 
reach the Shire below the falls near Kattunga and con- 
tinue my journey by water. Bugslag had marched on 
with my West Africans, and I followed in a ' jinricksha ' 
(a Japanese conveyance), which was drawn and pushed 
by two men at either end. We passed through a sa- 
vannah of trees, here and there relieved by close belts 
of bamboo, in a rapid down-hill drive towards the river. 
The negroes found the simple construction of the light 
vehicle so complicated that they displayed an astonishing 
lack of skill. It seems almost incredible that they should 
not have understood so simple a means of conveyance ; 
and yet the fact is so. They always placed themselves 
in the wrong place, and drew and pushed against each 
other ; at a crossing they would tear off the road into 
the deep grass or into the thicket ; several times they 
even overturned me ; in short, they tormented me with 
their clumsiness to such a degree that for the most part 
I preferred walking, although, on account of my rheu- 
matism, this was rendered very painful. On arriving 
at the Shire I found the large strong boat that had 
been lent to me ; this saved me about 70Z., which the 
coastward journey in a vessel of the Scotch Company 
would have cost me. 

I resumed my downward journey on the Shire on 
the 25th, shortly after the arrival of the expected 
steamer, which, however, was in such bad repair that 
for the present my start could not be thought of. 
Bugslag and I managed the wheel in turns. My eight 

■u 2 


West Africans, Fickerini, tlie Zanzibaris, a native 
brought as a guide, three wives of my people, and my 
two little valets, composed the expedition ; not to omit 
the two dogs, one of which was the last of the terriers 
I took from West Africa into the interior five years ago. 
Jettchen was the first European animal that had crossed 
the equatorial latitudes of the African continent. She 
reached her native country safe and sound, and lived 
two years longer in Germany. 

The first two or three German miles of the river can 
hardly be called navigable on account of the islands, 
sands, and narrow channels. The river, which now and 
then assumes the shape of lagoons, has deep banks, with 
plain grass savannah relieved by groves of borassus 
palms. The banks are in some places literally covered 
with crocodiles, of which Bugslag and I shot a large 
number. The muscular power of such a reptile is 
remarkable. The animal, after being hit, would jump 
up repeatedly more than a metre high, then he would 
throw himself on his back and lie dead on the spot ; 
others, not mortally wounded, would plunge into the 
river with extraordinarily vigorous leaps. Being near 
the coast and so not obliged to save our cartridges, we 
practised firing at crocodiles throughout the journey. 
In some places we came upon such numbers of hippo- 
potami that now and then they endangered the safety 
of the boat. What sounded like the distant rolling of 
thunder once made us start up in wonder, it being the 
dry season and the sky being serene ; but a violent 
vibration of the l^oat afterwards, and the rising of air- 
bubbles alongside, convinced us that it had been caused 


by the snorting of a hippopotamus, which strangely 
resembles the noise of distant thunder. 

Having provided ourselves at Mandala with Euro- 
pean potatoes, bread, onions, and vegetables, we lived 
very well ; this l^eing the case, the constantly changing 
scenery and the abundant animal life, continually pre- 
senting new and interesting pictures, made the journey 
a very amusing and enjoyable one. A traveller who 
for years has had to put up with African food cannot 
be offered a greater dainty than bread and European 
potatoes. I quite believe that any African traveller 
would leave a breakfast of oysters and champagne 
untouched if he had his choice between it and a dish 
of potatoes and bread. Good food and pleasant inter- 
course soon effected the strengthening of my weakened 
system. No one could have nursed me with oreater 
solicitude than my faithful Bugslag. When, about five 
in the evening, I halted at a place suitable for encamp- 
ment, my tent was pitched and arranged within ten 
minutes, and a simple supper, such as Bugslag well knew 
how to vary every day, was soon preparing. Since leaving 
Nyangwe, travelling with my small caravan, there had 
been no need for me to look after our suite. Bugslag 
was everywhere, and by his wonderful knack of 
managing the negroes he saved me many of the little 
vexations that the life of an African traveller is subject 
to. I could not have wished for a better travelling 
companion, a more dauntless and devoted comi^ade 
than he proved ; and, though only a simple sailor, he 
showed a rare tact. 

A very comical sight, which incited our black 



followers to roars of laughter, was a gigantic heron 
pv standing in the shallow water, shot through 
llll his wing. The bird had attacked with his 
^ beak one of my men who went 

^^ , to fetch him, pushed the man 

on in front until he fell down 
in the water, and belaboured 
him, till a shot from Bugslag's 
gun wounded the heron's 
wing, and put an end to this 
unequal struggle. 

On the 27th we passed 


GAME 295 

a vast level and monotonous wilderness, where now and 
then fan-palms towered above the high grass and low 
brushwood. Elephants are still plentiful in this wilder- 
ness, as we learned from their many tracks leading into 
the water ; but though we had been told at Mandala 
that we should frequently encounter large herds of 
them, we scarcely caught sight of one. There were, 
however, large flocks of anteloj^es, more numerous than 
I had ever before seen them. Out of a flock of at least 
150, Bugslag shot a large ram, which supplied us with 
meat for three days. 

On the 28th I halted at a point from which I could 
see the Portuguese flag at a village fortified w4th pali- 
sades ; this convinced me of its being a military station 
of the Portuguese Government. Lieutenant Cardoso, 
the commander of this post, received me kindly. His 
troop consisted of one man, his servant, called No. 23 ; 
for the Portuguese Government arrange their soldiers 
by numbers, not by names in the rolls. The officer 
was rather a political agent than the commander of a 
military post. He assembled the chiefs of his district 
once a week to transact Government business, and a 
number of glass bottles filled with aguardente ensured 
the punctual voluntary appearance of his subordinates. 

On embarking, No. 23 brought us as a parting 
present a cask of Portuguese wine, and then we went 
down the river, which now made frequent sudden turns. 
Next day we passed, on the right, some enormous 
lagoons, stretching far into the land,- and supplied by a 
branch of the Shire, A shot at a crocodile had an 
extraordinary effect. Clouds of birds, which enlivened the 



sloughs and lagoons, 
rose with a deafening 
noise. Ducks, geese, 
pelicans, herons, 
storks, rails, snipe, 
and innumerable 
other species in 
many thousands sud- 
denly disturljed the 
still life of the water- 

On the 31st the 
oarsmen pulled us 
from the waters of 
the Shire into the 
broad, imposing Father Zambesi. The Shire, by 
reason of its uniform depth in its chief arm, was 
far more navigable than the Zambesi in its lower 
course, which, in consequence of its breadth, winds 




along in innumerable channels, mostly shallow, through 
a labyrinth of sandbanks and islands mantled with 
grass or mangroves. We ran aground oftener than in 
the Shire, and had frequently to drag or push the boat 
through the water for a long distance. In the after- 
noon of the next day we were induced by the numerous 
traces of game, among which were several prints of 
lions' claws leading to the water, to pitch our camp and 
go on an evening hunt, though, in spite of the rich 
abundance of game, we did not succeed in bagging any- 
thing. After dark, when we were sitting smoking near 
a fire, we noticed a crocodile, with incredible insolence, 
crawling slowly out of the water and approaching us 
to within a few metres distance ; but before we could 
seize our rifles it had disappeared in the flood, hit with 
a firebrand by one of our people. 

In the afternoon of August 2 I paid a visit to a 
Portuguese fortress, the Fortalesa Chupanga, built of 
stone close to the river, where Alferez Machado Leal 
kindly greeted and entertained me as a German. I say 
as a German, since the proceedings of the English on 
the (Shire were regarded with distrust on the part of 
Portugal. Even then I foresaw what has occurred since, 
that here the Portuguese would have to give way to the 
advance of England. 

Close to the fortress was the grave of Livingstone's 
wife, who had here succumbed to the fever — a simple 
cross, which, strangely enough, had received a singular 
ornament. Some twelve months before, a huge adan- 
sonia, felled by the storm, had fallen across the grave 
in such a manner that by means of a strong branch 


and the curve of the stem it formed an arch above the 
grave without touching the cross. 

In the evening of the same day we arrived at the 
station of the Scotch Company, and thus terminated 
our navigation of the Zambesi ; for to get to Quihmane 
you have to go across country for one kilometre as far 
as the Quaqua, and follow it down to the seaboard. The 
Quaqua is connected with the Zambesi close to the 
mouth of the Shire. 

On August 4 we put our boat on a strong cart pre- 
pared for this purpose, and, through an absolute plain 
between the Zambesi and the Quaqua, we drew it over 
to the latter. The Quaqua, which often narrows itself to 
twenty-five metres, next day carried our boat farther 

I shot a crocodile close to the village, the natives of 
which asked me for it, for the flesh of this disgusting 
animal is to them a special luxury. On Bugslag's hunt- 
ing list this was the seventy-fifth crocodile since our 
navigation of the Nyassa. The crocodiles are greatly 
feared in the Quaqua. I was told that they would try 
with their tails to push the occupants of a canoe into 
the water. 

One day, on our journey down the Quaqua, we met 
forty-seven trading canoes, carrying cloth, beads, iron 
wire, powder, and guns, all bound for the interior. The 
banks of the Quaqua, from the frequent appearance of 
mangroves, assume an entirely new character. This 
Indian fruit-tree, imported and cultivated by the Arabs 
and Indians throughout the coast, has quite taken root 
here, and affords splendid shade. Its dark leaves, of a 



black-green colour, are, especially in tlie dry season, a 
strong contrast to the general yellow tint of the land- 
scape, caused by drought and a scorching sun. 

We had always to stop when the tide was coming 
in and to go on as it went out, till, on August 8, we 
reached an expanse of water that gradually forms the 
harbour of Quilimane. We noticed the masts of a barque 
from a distance, at the topmast of which was displayed 


the German "flas^. Before landino- 1 ran alono-side of the 


vessel, and was not a little surprised to find it to be a 
ship whose christening I had attended at my garrison 
at Eostock. The captain of the ship knew me per- 
sonally, and we renewed our acquaintance with the 
first glass of German beer I had had since I landed in 

In the town, which is distinguished from all the other 
border towns of the Portuguese by its pretty gardens, 


Bugslag and I took lodgings at an hotel, and with the aid 
of an Indian tailor we tried to somewhat conform our 
outward appearance to the civilisation around us. 

A few days after, a ship of the Castle Line conveyed 
us to Mozambique. The Governor-General of the 
Portuguese possessions in East Africa, Agosto de 
Castilho, was kind enough to let me make use of a 
Portuguese man-of-war, which was going from Mozam- 
bique to Loanda, to convey my honest West Africans 
back to Angola. I rewarded the faithful services of 
my black followers, and then, with Bugslag, my two black 
boys, who would not leave me, and my old flag-bearer 
Fickerini, I took the next northward steamer, and 
in the first place went to Zanzibar. There I found a 
hospitable reception, just as I had five years before, at 
the house of business of Mr. Oswald. 

It was not till now that I learnt what meanwhile 
had happened in East Africa : that Germany had here 
opened a new field for Transatlantic activity. Dr. 
Peters, just returning from a coastward tour, surprised 
me by the narration of his work, his success, and his 
prospects ; and, the report he gave setting at rest the 
apprehensions I had brought with me from the coast, 
I gave myself up entirely to joy at the successful results 
of the German spirit of enterprise ; not dreaming that 
I myself should have to act a part in the events which 
I had foreseen to be necessary forerunners of any work 
of civilisation in Africa ; not dreaming that I should so 
soon be permitted to deal the first fatal blow against the 
pestiferous dominion of the Arabs, which was laying 
waste the African continent. 




Liiluaburg : May 10, 1887. 

Monsieur Wissmann, — On leaving the Lualabayou told me 
that our return march might be effected within two months • 
your prediction has come true — nay, I have great satisfaction in 
telling you that your caravan reached Luluaburg as early as 
April 18. 

The road we took in marching back differed constantly from 
the one we marched together. 

To put something like order into my nai'ration, I think I 
had better dissect my journey into stages : (1) From Nyangwe 
to the Lomami ; (2) from the Lomami to Lupungu ; (3) from 
Lupungu to the Lubi ; and (4) from the Lubi to Lubuku. 

(1) On leaving the Lualaba I reached the left bank of the 
Lufubu, whose waters were about three metres lower than you 
found them, in two days' march ; the Moadi, which I passed rather 
below our former camp, was also nearly dry, presenting no 
difficulties. Leaving Pogge's return road on the left, I went 
from Goi Capopa in a straight line to Kabamba, where we had 
left Kashawalla. 

The Coango likewise being shallow, some morasses on this 
march were the only obstacles. 

That part of our caravan which you had left at Kabamba I 
found in a deplorable state. Small-pos had demanded more 


victims : about ten Basliilange liacl died, fifteen were seriously 
ill. Josso and Makenge from Angola died among others, and 
the chiefs Kajembe, Moina, and Ilunga Mputt. In spite of 
seeing their countrymen, the people were greatly demoralised. 

My first care was to isolate the small-pox patients and those 
sickening for small-pox. 

After two days of rest, or rather halt to buy provisions, I 
started, and took measures always to prevent the caravan coming 
into contact with the sick patients. 

Owing to this precaution, carried out with restless energy, I 
succeeded in lessening the deaths. Arrived at Lubuku, I there- 
fore counted only sixty sick people, of whom not above thirty 

In spite of the strictest measures of M. de Macar, we had, 
after all, to mourn for many dead, among them our dear old 
friend Jingenge, brave Katende, and some Ginga soldiers. 

Dr. Sommers assured me the epidemic would not spread 
further. Let us hope that he may be right, for the poor people 
have suffered enough on this unfortunate expedition. I will not 
mention the number of victims ; it is enormous. 

To return to our journey. 

On leaving Kabamba I took the road between your route 
and Cameron's, and crossed the Lomami at our old point, after 
endless negotiations about the canoes I required. 

(2) From the Lomami to Lupungu. — Keeping to the right 
bank of the Lukassi, I found the district rather more populated 
than we had done on passing through it, and behind Kalambai 
I even came upon a number of little villages. Beyond the 
Lukassi, near Milambo, the natives had begun to rebuild their 
villages opposite to the place where was Said's camp. 

At Kalambai we met the last hordes of Arabs, whose guide, a 
certain Kassia, wanted to ally himself with me for a cou]) de main 
against the people on the Lukassi. I of course frustrated his 
design. Said's hordes had laid waste the fields throughout, so 
that we could not buy anything. 

I had intended to take Pogge's route, straight to the Sankurru, 
not in order to see new countries, but only to push on my caravan 


as quickly and as well as possible ; my plan was, however, altered 
in many respects. The guides I had taken from Milambo fled from 
Baqua Peshi ; besides, we were induced to abandon our plan by the 
Bassonge and Kalebue, who predicted a ten days' march through 
depopulated districts. So we took our former road to Lupungu. 

(3) From Lupungu to the Lubi. — From Lubefu, where I en- 
camped in the same place that you did, I took a south-westerly 
direction, and reached within four days a group of four or six 
villages of the Ku-Mapenge ; they formerly belonged to Zappu 
Zapp, but have since his departure made themselves independent. 
According to my calculation, Zappu Zapp must have left his 
old domicile in 1884. 

Thence, in a more northern direction, I reached Mona Kialo, 
the son of Zappu Mutapos ; the latter, likewise dispossessed by 
the advance of the Arabs, had settled near the Bambue, and 
had since died of small-pox. 

After his death, Mona Kialo made war on the Bambue, and 
now, as their master, lives among them on the left bank of the 
Kashimbi, a tributary of the Sankurru. 

He must have lived there since 1886. He has about 400 
guns, mostly flint-lock rifles. These countries south of your 
and Pogge's route are mountainous ; from them rise the brooks 
you passed. Being followed by about 400 Ku-Mapenge bound 
for Zappu Zapp, I appeared nearly 1,200 strong at Mona 
Kialo's. But my numbers did not seem to intimidate Mona 
Kialo's insolent robbers. Just fancy that in broad daylight 
three guns were stolen from the camp ! You may imagine my 

I sent for Mona Kialo, and threatened to cut off his head 
unless he took care to surrender both the arms and the thieves 
by sunset. He wanted to excuse himself by alleging the num- 
bers of strangers about him ; but I interrupted him, and swore 
that he should die unless he did as he was bidden. 

I don't believe I should have been strong enough to master 
him, but I was all the more persistent with my threats. Kasha- 
walla was of course dumb with fear. ' You go too far,' he said ; 
' your followers will take flight.' 


In a few hours Mona Kialo appeared, bringing with him the 
stolen guns ; the thieves, he said, had been killed and distributed 
to be eaten. 

' You lie,' I said ; ' I will see the thieves.' 

' But they are dead ! ' 

' Well, then, show me their dead bodies.' 

' They are cut to pieces ! ' 

' Let me see them.' 

Of course I thought this was all a lie ; but fancy my terror 
and loathing when some Bassonge actually came along with 
pieces of human flesh, with cut-off" arms, legs, &c. Kashawalla 
had disappeared. Our Bashilange and Angola people freely 
gave vent to their disgust and horror. 

I should have thought that the action of our people would 
have frightened the natives, but I soon saw that they were all very 
much excited, most of all Mona Kialo himself. 

Towards midnight I was called by the interpreter, as the 
natives, having arranged a grand banquet for eating human 
flesh, had drawn all our people out of camp to witness it. I 
held a 'Moiio,' thereby calling all the lookers-on from this 
loathsome drama. 

Here I felt quite powerless. What could I have done 
here ? Had I taken the terrible prey from those savage brutes 
by force, this might have become a signal for war, and by this 
not only the success of the expedition would have been risked — 
the natives had double our number of guns — but I should have 
likewise been compelled to obtain food and guides, the provision- 
ing of the caravan presenting the greatest difiiculty as it was. 

I have been rather circumstantial, but, without wanting to 
bore you with little casualties of the journey, I could not but 
tell you about this loathsome spectacle. 

I resumed my journey, and after two days' march arrived on 
the Sankurru, which I crossed just above the Bubila (according 
to Kiepert, Lubila). I reached Zappu Zapp, who since Dr. 
Wolf's visit has changed his place of abode, which was formerly 
on the right bank. 

I found Zappu Zapp not nearly so powerful as I had con- 


jectured; his reputation is greatly exaggerated by liis people 
and his enemies. Though he may be called a formidable chief, 
he is not to be compared to Lupungu, Mona Kakesa, and Moua 
Kialo, He has subdued many people, but this was not difficult, 
as they had none of them any firearms. 

After a four days' march through a mountainous and densely 
wooded country, I reached the Lubi. 

(4) From the Lubi to Lubuku. — Oue day's march north of 
the crossing on your first journey I passed over the Lubi. From 
thence to the Lubudi I followed our old track, then I went 
farther south and crossed the Lulua near Luluaburg. 

I am anxious to hear about your further adventures since 
our separation ; I hope that you reached the coast safely, and 
that my letter found you well. 

Accept, Monsieur Wissmann, the kindest regards and best 
wishes from 

Yours &c., 

P. Le Marinel. 




My sketch of the population in the Bashilange country, based 
on my own experience and the reliable inquiries which, in con- 
sequence of my long sojourn in those regions, I was able to 
make, gives a truer picture of one part of Central Africa than 
maps of a travelling route ever can. 

The Bashilange (singular, Mushilange) or, as they are called 
by the Western tribes, Tushilange (singular, Kashilange), are a 
mixture of the Baluba who had invaded from the south-west, 
and the Bashi-Lange, who had been established previously in 
the district. 

Bashi is a term for people, which, as is still the case west 
of the Cassai with the Bashi-Lele, Bashi-Panga, &c., was also 
customary with the Bashi-Lange, meaning the same as the term 
which is now used by the Bakuba and the tribes as far as the 
Lualaba : Baqua, Bena, or, probably shortened, only Ba (singular, 
Muqua, Mona, Mu). Baqua means people, Bena, sons ; for 
instance, Baqua-Kataua, i.e. people from Kataua ; Bena-Lulua, 
Kasairi, Biamba, i.e. sons of the Lulua, the Kasairi, the Riaraba. 

The invading Baluba subdued the Bashilange and mixed with 
them ; hence the present Bashilange like to call themselves Baluba, 
and are called so by people in the north, while the nations border- 
ing on the east, south, and west, call them Ba, or Tushilange.^ 

I have decided upon the appellation ' Bashilange,' this 
nation being a striking contrast to the pure Baluba on the 

^ I am sorry that in my work Im Innern Afrxkas, the Bashilange 
have always heen called Baluha. This is owing to the circumstance 
that the work was prepared dm-ing my last journey by my followers, who 
had come back prior to my return, and that its preparation had so far 



eastern border — a contrast wliicli is scarcely met with among 
Bantu negroes throughout the continent. 

The present result of the mixture is such that this nation 
has apparently no characteristic feature of the Baluba left, at 
least as regards outward ap- 
pearance. The language cer- 
tainly is little altered, and 
this circumstance, as well as 
the generally well-preserved 
tradition, gives evidence of 
the said mixture ; the very 
great differences of colour, 
skin, and conformation, also 
are in favour of the sometimes 




advanced that a thorough alteration might laave delayed the pubUcation of 
the book. There being, certainly, some justification for the appellation, I 
did not alter it ; but this is the reason why, in these pages, I have called 
these people by their right name. 



The Baluba being bony, muscular, thick-set, and broad- 
shouldered people, the old Bashi-Lange must have been ex- 
ceedingly narrow-chested, long-limbed, and less muscular, since 
the present Bashilange far more resemble the frame of the latter 
than of the Baluba. The excessive smoking of wild hemp (j-iamhci) 
alone cannot have had this effect, as it is only twenty-five years 
ago since its use became customary among them ; and among the 
younger generation it is already beginning to decrease. And 
this reminds me that hemp is smoked, though in small quantities, 
throughout Africa as it is known to me, from the Atlantic to 
the Indian Ocean. At Uniamwesi, it was in 1883 greatly on 
the increase. I even know pure Arabs who are given to this bad 
habit ; though I cannot but add, that the noxious results are much 

Other differences influencing the physical development, such 
as meteorological conditions, food, occupation, care of the body, 
&c., which might appear to be arguments against the supposed 
mixture, are not worthy of notice. 

The arms of the Bashilange also give evidence of their 
mixed blood, as they make use of spear, club, bow, and knife. 
The bow was the weapon of the old Bashi-Lange, and is so still, 
north and west of this place ; the spear is the weapon of the 
Baluba, who are up to this day seldom seen with a bow. On all 
ray journeys I have never met a tribe armed with the javelin ; 
that always goes with the shield and the bow, though this does 
not prevent one's finding some spears among bow nations, and 
vice versa. Between the Cassai and the Tanganyika Lake, in 
Central Africa Proper, whither the gun has scarcely penetrated as 
yet, there is a marked limit between the bow-Ubujiwe and the 
spear-Manyema ; the spear-Baluba and the bow-Bassonge ; the 
bow-Bassongo-Mino and the spear nations north of them on 
the Cassai. 

On my own map I marked four classes of Bashilange by 
means of colours : the Bashilamboa, Bashilambembele, Bashi- 
lakassanga, and Bena-Luntu. 

The distinction between the three former will soon have dis- 
appeared ; probably they were a mixture of tribes, formed during 



the invasion of the Baluba, as new conquerors continued to 
come from the east, dispossessing their predecessors. Even now 
it is difficult to ascertain to wliich of the three a tribe belongs. 
1. The Bashilamboa, the largest and most western portion, 
who only nominally acknowledge Katende, whose ancestors of 
Baluba blood once governed them as their head. Bashilamboa, 


i.e. Bashilange-imboa (imhoa, dog), because in war they bit like 
dogs (allegorically), or because they ate dogs, which habit they 
had retained from the old Bashi-Lange, while the Baluba 
despise this food. 

The pedigree of the Prince Katende reaches back to Mona 


Kaujika. from whom his ancestors obtained the Dikonga dia 
Difuma, an iron sceptre, of which only one specimen is said 
to be extant among the Baluba. (The Dikonga, which was 
surrendered to me after a war with Katende, when I took him 
prisoner, is, with its far-back pedigree, in the Berlin Museum.) 
Katende is now powerless, and the mixture of the Bashilamboa 
is thus only of historical interest. As is the case everywhere, 
the appearance of firearms has changed everything here. 

2. The Bashilambembele, i.e. Bashilange-bembele Qjembele, 
mosquito), either because they stung like mosquitoes or because 
they were as numerous as mosquitoes. They drove the Bashi- 
lamboa westward. The famih" of their former chief is no longer 
to be ascertained. 

3. The Bashilakassanga. Kassanga-sanga, small white ants, 
which build their hard black cells, resembling dross of iron, in 
the ground. They burn some of those cells with the insects in 
them in the houses, so as to drive away the mosquitoes by the 
smoke ; thus the Bashilakassanga drove the Bashilambembele 
farther to the north-west. 

4. The Bena-Luntu, distinct from either of the three former, 
who from their appearance have most Baluba blood, are jJerhaps 
even cannibals, which the others are not. The Bena-Luntu 
are rarely found to be tattooed, but all the more frequently they 
paint like the pure Baluba, though they do it much better, and 
with magnificent colours (black, white, red) ; and, besides, they 
are much more barbarous. 

The three first classes had either retained or adopted the 
artistic and tasteful tattooings of the old Bashi-Lange. 

In the patterns of the tattooing three distinct motives are 
easily distinguishable among different ages, which proves that 
in course of time the fashion has altered. At present — that is, 
for the last ten years — tattooing has gone out of fashion. 

Each of these four tribal associations is subdivided into tribes ; 
these again into communities ; the latter into families, each of 
which sometimes owns several villages. This division, of course, 
is not one regulated by any authorities, but has in course of time 
taken its rise from separation in consequence of war, local over- 



population, hostilities, 
&c. Very often I could 
no longer ascertain 
which were the tribes, 
and which communities 
or families belonged to 
them; names which are 
used in connection with 
many Baqua or Bena, 
such as Baqua Katana 
or Bena Meta, or those 
occurring in different 
places, as the Baqua- 
Mulume, may be considered to be names of tribes. 

The same names are often found in places far apart, such as 
the Baqua Mbuju, in the north-east and west. This only proves 
that members of villages or communities were and are easily 
induced to leave their abodes to settle down in another neighbour- 
hood. The reasons are, sickness (small-pox), war, oppression by 


a more powerful neighbour, accidents through lightning (which, 
contrary to universal belief, are very frequent). The Bashilange 
never settle among other nations, as is the case with the Kioque, 
who always press northward. 

I have registered 147 names, mostly indicative of tribes, 
of which fifty-eight fall to the Bashilamboa, fifty-three to the 
Bashilambembele, twenty-one to the Bashilakassanga, and fifteen 
to the Bena-Luntu. Several are sure to be missing, chiefly 
among the Bashilamboa, though this does not signify, since, for 
the reasons I have mentioned, I am not able to give an exact 
political map, but only a general picture of the population in 
this country. 

The Bashilange were a warlike people ; one tribe with an- 
other, one village with another, alwaj's lived at daggers drawn. 
The number of scars which some ancient men display among 
their tattooings give evidence of this. 

Then, about twenty-five years ago, nominally originated by 
Moamba Mputt, a hemp-smoking worship began to be established, 
and the narcotic effect of smoking masses of hemp made itself 
felt The Bena-Riamba, ' Sons of Hemp,' found more and more 
followers ; they began to have intercourse with each other as they 
became less barbarous and made laws. 

The old people, who had grown up in constant hostility, would 
not hear of any novelties, and when the adherents of the new wor- 
ship grew more and more numerous, they retreated to remote dis- 
tricts. These conservatives were called Chipnlumba ; they were 
finally pursued by the Sons of Hemp, and many of them killed. 

The Bena-Luntu have not as yet adopted the worship of 
hemp, and are still thorough savages. On the main road between 
the Cassai and the Luebo one does not notice a higher degree 
of cultivation among the Bena-Kiamba ; but, on the contrary, they 
are insolent, thievish people, though this may be ascribed to the 
influence of the incessantly passing commercial caravans. 

Formerly the country owned a large store of ivory and gum, 
whose value was then unknown. The Kioque, an itinerant and 
enterprising nation of commerce and the chase, had repeatedly 
made futile attempts to make inroads ; they first appeared under 



the leadership of Mona Mukanjanga, and, under the influence 
of hemp-smoking, they cunningly profited by the products of the 

The first guns were imported. Each man who was fortunate 
enough to obtain such a weapon, ' chingomma ' (^ugomma is the 
big kettle-drum), in exchange for an elephant's tusk, was a 
Mukelenge, i.e. a chief, or at any rate a great man. 

The Kioque managed to induce Kassongo, the prince of the 
Baqua-Kashia, and his brother Mukenge, the present Kalamba- 
Mukenge, as well as Jingenge and Kabassu-Babu from Jirimba, 
to follow them into their country, called Jilunga (Kaliinga, 
' great mind '). They returned with guns and many Kioque, and 
Kassongo was universally acknowledged as the head of all hemp- 
smokers ; when he died, on his second expedition to the Kioques, 
he was succeeded by Mukenge. Now commenced a pilgrimage 
of chiefs to the Kioque. They all wished to let themselves be 
well cheated by them, to buy gvins, and to obtain their proper 
chieftain's commission, mostly by adoj)ting a Kioque name. 

Kabassa-Babu had not yet returned from his second journey ; 
Jingenge, however, had, and had brought with him many guns, 
mostly obtained by extortion. He now renounced Mukenge 
and became independent, others soon following suit. 

The Kioque Mukanjanga was the patron of the new chiefs, 
and, making a base use of his position, he always enriched himself. 

The Bangala, a mixture of Tupende and Kalunda, who had 
lately released themselves from Portuguese sovereignty, followed 
the Kioque hither, but only pursued commercial interests. In 
consequence, great jealousy arose between them and the Kioque, 
which at first was kept in bounds by the latter, who had to pass 
through Kassange, the Bangala country, when going with their 
goods to the sea-board. Soon, however, hostilities broke out 
among them, and the hatred continued. 

The first Portuguese negro at Lubuku (i.e. ' friendship,' as 
they had called the country of the hemp-smokers) was my pre- 
sent interpreter Kashawalla. He came in 1874, pretended to be 
a son of the king of the white men, and gave accounts of the latter. 

In 1881 Pogge and I arrived, led by Kashawalla. Pogge 


was received as Mushangi, i.e. spirit of Kassongo, who had died 
at Kioque, and I was regarded as that of Kabassu-Babn, which 
name I have retained to this day. 

Gradually the influence of the Kioque disappeared, and ours 
became paramount. Mukenge followed us as far as Nyangwe. 
The old Bakelenge — i.e. chief- — had had to make room for the 
hemp-smokers, the latter again for those who had got their 
licence from the Kioques. Now, after Mukenge had once more 
accompanied me to explore the Cassai, the acknowledgment of 
the white man is a sign of being truly entitled to the dignity 
of chief, and Kalamba-Mukenge, with my support, as well as on 
account of his gTeat merits, is again raised to be the most 
powerful prince of the Bashilange. It is to be hoped that this 
just and comparatively trustworthy negro will long work in 
this capacity for the benefit of civilisation. 

The Bashilange country is more populous in the east than 
in the west ; on an average, I found twenty-six inhabitants to 
one square kilometre. Thus the sum of the population of the 
Bashilange is 1,400,000, of whom 560,000 are Bashilamboa, 
420,000 Bashilambembele, 280,000 Bashilakassanga, 140,000 
Bena-Luntu. While the people formerly used to live in small 
villages and farms, they now, especially in the Biamba district, 
live in batches of 1,000 or 1,200 ; but to this those living in the 
west and the barbarous Bena-Luntu are an exception. 

The country slopes evenly towards the north-west from a 
height of 880 metres down to 35 metres, and is richly watered. 
The layer of humus is thicker in the valleys than on the slopes ; 
and on the ridge of the plateau stretching between two water- 
courses there is found red and sometimes yellow laterite. To- 
wards the north this laterite is spread on horizontally piled soft 
red sandstone, whose colour is probably caused by the iron which 
is in it. The northern boundary of the layer of laterite is marked 
by a range of hills which is especially prominent in the east. 
The sandstone is laid on Plutonic rocks, granite, and gneiss, 
which are found on the bottom of many a deep, flowing brook. 

Beyond the limit I mentioned, which is wanting in sand- 
stone, the laterite is piled close to the granite or gneiss, as the 


case may be ; the strata of laterite are on the average from 60 to 
70 metres thick, which we have proved by repeatedly measuring 
the slopes near the sources, where they resemble a perpendicu- 
larly sloping dark red amphitheatre, ornamented with many 
crags and pillars. 

The northern limit of the sandstone is at a height of between 
600 and 700 metres; that of the projecting Plutonic rocks at 
nearly 500 metres, which naturally forms the line connecting 
the extreme points of the navigation of the rivers. This line 
nearly meets the southern limit of the big primaeval forests ; and, 
as elephants and buffaloes have retreated into these forests, and 
the adjoining tribes have no firearms, it has also become a zoo- 
logical boundary. 

If in the Bashilange country all the valleys and ravines of 
the water-courses could be filled up, it would present one vast 
plain sloping towards the north-west. The formation of the 
terrain is exclusively owing to the water ; all the peninsulas are 
thickly wooded, and display a variety of boundary woods, savan- 
nahs of grass or trees, &c. The country being so richly watered, 
a tenth part of the surface at least is covered with primaeval 
forests. From a bird's-ej^e view, the country would resemble 
richly-veined marble. 

Most tropical plants flourish, chiefly wild, such as sugar, rice, 
cotton, gum, and palms ; so does coSee, which was frequently 
brought from the forests on the boundaries. Among the still 
unknown wealth of the flora, I only make mention of some trees 
which bear excellent oil fruits and dye-wood. The forests 
abound in timber and trees of splendid colours and perfume. 

The Bashilange grow all the African produce of a field that 
I know of, and since our journey to Nyangwe they also grow rice. 
Tobacco, if well cultivated, will flourish. Besides pine-apples, 
bananas, and plantains, the melon tree, pease tree, the fruits of 
the passion flower, and the lemon tree have been imported and 
successfully cultivated, as also have onions and tomatoes. 
Lettuce, radishes, cari-ots, and kohlrabi will grow excellently, 
and many other vegetables would be sure to thrive if the seeds 
were frequently renewed. 


All the water-courses flow on white sandy ground, carrying 
along thin scales of mica. The water is mostly good and cool, on 
account of constant shade ; the rivers are not particularly well 
stocked with fish, probably owing to their sandy and, in the 
north, stony beds. 

Of huntable game I only mention the Tragelaphus SGriptus 
and the Red River pig ; elephants and buffaloes have moved to 
the north ; the beasts of prey are represented by leopards, 
lynxes, and many species of wild cats. The striped wolf and 
the jackal are rare, while the lion and hyaena are almost 
entirely absent. The primaeval forests house but few monkeys, 
but abound in many specimens of Rodentia, which play a chief 
part in the menu of the Mushilange. 

The rivers are still alive with hippopotami and crocodiles, 
which, contrary to the often-told fable, live peacefully together. 
The former are slowly, but surely, going to destruction, for the 
huge pachydermata must at last succumb to the number of 
iron shots with which they are pursued by those of their neigh- 
bours who are in possession of guns. In the third part of a 
hippopotamus which I once shot in the Lulaa were eight iron 
balls. The remaining two-thirds were at night dragged into 
the deep by crocodiles. 

The part of Africa known to me does not abound in birds. 
The extensive fields of millet and maize are often frequented 
by pigeons, guinea and savannah fowls ; for water birds and 
waders there is no suitable abode here, as all the water-courses 
run far inland. The grey parrot, the carythaix, and rhinoceros 
bird, live in the boundary forests ; the night raven iji open dis- 
tricts ; the vulture angolensis, in palm groves near rivers, while 
the carrion buzzard is found everywhere. Red, yellow, and 
grey weavers are plentiful ; the latter takes here the place of 
our sparrow. 

Venomous snakes are very frequent, especially the puff- 
adder. Many accidents have been caused by them. In build- 
ing Luluaburg station twenty- six venomous snakes were 
encountered in a terrain 300 metres in diameter ; six people 
were bitten, but their lives were saved. 


Of the inferior animals, I only mention the termites, which 
bore through every laterite ground. These insects render house- 
building very difficult, unless one knows the kind of timber 
which they leave untouched ; while they scarcely ever do any 
harm to garden and field produce. 

The cattle imported, besides the native domestic animals, 
the European dogs, Turkish ducks, pigeons, and the superior 
species of fowls, thrive well, and increase most wonderfully. By 
temporarily scorching the grass, a good pasture-ground may 
always be procured for cattle. The northern boundary of the 
primeval forest will here also become a limit to the spreading of 
cattle, as large buffalo blue-bottles (not the tsetse fly, which is 
not found here) will soon kill the animals, as the most northern 
Bashilauge have experienced, to their great loss. 

The Bashilange, endeavouring as they do to adopt everything 
connected with civilisation, to imitate, nay to ape, whatever they 
can, will become civilised sooner than any other African tribe I 
know. What a change has come about in these people during 
the last ten years ! 

Contrary to all surrounding nations, they will travel with 
white men as convo3'S or to carry easy loads. They have 
adopted the cultivation of rice, and enlarged the stock of their 
domestic animals ; they have abandoned many evil habits, as 
the ordeal drink ; they have burnt their idols, and abrogated the 
penalty of death ; they manufacture strong cloths with pretty 
patterns from the Raphia vinifera ; they are not only able to im- 
prove their guns, but to fabricate every part of them excepting 
the barrel. They have even commenced to build two-storied 
clay houses ; they try all they can to dress in the European 
fashion, to construct tables and arm-chairs, to eat with knives 
and forks oS" a plate ; they ride bulls, and make use of the 
tipoia (a hammock for carrying), though of course only the 
chiefs are allowed this luxury. 

A great drawback is that the Bashilange man is not 
accustomed to work, and that the woman was, and still is, only 
a slave who has to do all the work in field and house ; while the 
man will only manufacture cloth or go hunting, but principally 


smoke hemp and talk with incredible fluency. He is, therefore, 
not at all inclined to regular work, and thus there is always 
a difficulty in persuading the people in the village belonging to 
the station to work half a yard of stuff daily. 

When these people first made the acquaintance of black 
traders, there was still a rich abundance of ivory, and all the 
necessaries of life were easily procured ; afterwards women, and 
even their own children, were sold ; this, however, is fortunately 
now greatly on the wane, and is even prohibited by some chiefs. 
Gum was soon produced, though in quite a primitive way, but 
the yield was good ; prices have now been raised, on account of 
the decrease of the caoutchouc liana. 

Want increases, however, in the same degree as the easy 
mode of satisfying it decreases. Short trading expeditious are 
undertaken to the north, and in the east the slaves are bought 
of the Baluba, who suffer from over-population, in order to sell 
them to the Kioque and Bangala. 

But as soon as European houses of business are settled here, 
with which ' the Dutch house at Banana ' will make a start 
before long ; when slaves are no longer sold, when gum is not 
forthcoming, and when ivory shall have disappeared in the ad- 
joining countries, then real work will be commenced, for, from 
the progress noted above, one may with some certainty infer 
a final approach to civilisation. 

I hope that I may live to see this last step of a people in the 
midst of whom and with whom I have worked for six years ; 
this will surely be my greatest reward for a time full of care, 
privations, frequent disappointments and difficulties, though 
also of success. 


Abed, SheUc, 198, 221, 224, 225 
Akaniarn Lake, 252 
Akauanda, 104 
Albert Lake, 236, 241 
Anderson, 83 
Angola, 66, 74, 91, 129, 136, 145, 

229, 273, 276, 300, 302, 304 
Aruvimi, 241 

Ba-people, 76 

Babecki, 55 

Babenge, 55 

Backashocko, 163 

Badinga, 29, 30 

Badingo, 163 

Bain, Mr., 274, 275 

Bajaia, 55 

Bakete, 39, 60, 103, 104, 154 

Balraba, 34, 41, 42, 46, 60, 71, 108, 
129, 149, 153, 154 

Bakimdu, 55 

Bakutu, 27 

Balonda, 169 

Baluba, 2, 3, 6, 30, 36, 45, 48, 55, 82, 
104-107, 109-115, 117, 121-127, 
140-143, 146, 159, 165, 180, 190, 
202, 216, 222, 229, 239, 244, 253, 
254, 261, 307, 308, 310 

Baliinbangando, 54 

Balnngu, 85, 86, 91, 102, 103, 116, 
121, 128, 190 

Bambiie, 303 

Banana, 3, 318 


Banbangala, 55 

Bandawe, 287 

Bangala, 55, 135, 232, 313 

Bangodi, 27, 28 

Bangiieolo Lake, 106, 107, 271 

Bankutu, 42, 54, 55 

Bantu, 176, 307 

Baqua-peoj)le : Baqua-Kash, vide 
Kash, &c. 

Barunibe, 55 

Bashi-people : Bashi-Bonibo, vide 
Bonibo, &c. 

Basliilakassanga, 310-312, 314 

Bashilambembele, 310-312, 314 

Bashilamboa, 96, 97, 310-312, 

Bashilange, 39, 55, 60, 61, 62, 64, 
71, 78, 99, 100, 102-104, 106, 108, 
109, 117, 121 123, 127, 130, 133, 
135, 139, 140, 146, 149, 150, 154, 

158, 165, 168, 170-172, 175, 187, 
188, 191, 192, 202-204, 207, 211, 
213, 214, 216-220, 223, 226-229, 
271, 301, 302, 304, 306-318 

Bashobe, 27 

BasseUe-Kungu, 51 

Bassongo, 44, 45, 48, 51, 149, 157, 

159, 162, 163, 172, 178, 180, 188- 
192, 197, 303, 304, 308 

Bassongo-Mino, 3, 24, 27, 41, 42, 

54, 55, 154, 172, 308 
Bateke, 12 
Bateman, 6, 39, 60, 61, 74, 101, 129 





Batempa, 162 

Batetela, 51, 53, 157, 163, 169, 180, 

Batondoi, 46 

Batua, 55, 73, 157, 159, 163, 165- 
167, 241 

Bayanzi, 43 

Bayenga, 55 

Beiande, 185, 190, 200 

Bena — sons : Bena - Lmitu, vide 
Liintu, &c. 

Benecki, 180, 181, 185, 190, 192, 

Bengiiela, 145 

Betundn, 163, 168, 169 

Bihe People, 116, 145, 148, 190 

Bilolo, 190 

Bississi, 267 

Blantyre, 226 

Boehm, Dr., 240 

Boma, 4 

Bombo, 76 

Bondo, 55 

Bonshina, 55 

Botecka, 55 

Bubila (Lubila), 304 

Bugslag, shipwright, 3, 7, 36, 39, 
55, 61, 63-66, 84, 85, 87, 137, 
139, 151, 165, 173-175, 192, 205, 
207, 211, 214, 226, 229, 234, 237, 
252, 254, 258, 262, 266, 278, 284^ 
286, 291, 292, 294, 205, 298, 300 

Bushi-Maji, 112, 114, 115, 123, 127 

Bnssindi, Bena, 241 

Butoto, 42 

Bwana Zefu, vide Zefu 

Cameron, Lieutenant, 52, 85, 116, 

221, 233 
Cardoso, Lieutenant, 295 
Carvalho, 71, 83 
Cassabi, 5 
Cassai, 4-6, 10-13, 17, 19, 20, 22, 

24, 28, 30-32, 34, 36, 37-42, 56, 
58, 59, 61, 64, 70, 74-76, 85, 97, 
100, 107, 136, 137, 147, 155, 156, 
308, 312, 314 

Castilho, Agosto de, 300 

Chambese, 271 

Chameta, Baqua, 144 

Chia, Baqua, 128 

Chikapa, 80 

ChOailla, Bena, 148 

Chihmga Messo, 90 

Chimbao, 99 

Chingenge, 39, 86, 95, 113, 138, 142, 
144, 302 

Chipuhimba, 71, 72, 89, 97, 139, 

Chirihi, 72 

Chiriinba, 87 

Chitari, 87 

Chupanga, 298 

Coango, 220 

Congo, 4, 6, 11, 13, 43, 52, 54, 60, 
64, 66, 78, 86, 100, 107, 116, 136, 
148, 159, 192, 202, 208, 209, 222, 
223, 227, 229, 236, 239-242, 252 
273, 301, 306 

Congo Railway, 21 

Congo State, 2, 60, 83, 87, 100, 120, 
129, 187, 192, 230, 251, 260, 261 

Dahomey, 36, 57 
Dean, Lieutenant, 232 
Dibue, 200 

Dikonga dia Difiuna, 309 
Disho (Dishu), Baqua, 112, 124 
Dongenfuro, 55 
Dongonsoro, 55 
Dronimeau, Missionary, 261 

Emin Bey, 236, 250 

' En Avant,' steamer, 7, 34, 38, 39, 

41, 49, 54, 55, 56, 59, 150 
Equator station, 6 



Famba (Jvima bin Salim, Juma 

Merikani), 4G, 116, 183, 185, 190, 

200, 221, 223, 227, 228, 230, 232, 

233, 235 
Felsen, Van der, 39, 59 
Fickerini, 198, 223, 235, 268, 271, 

292, 300 
Francois, Von, 3, 104, 107, 128 
Fmno NkoUe, 153 

Galula, 261, 262 

Gapetch, 42 

Germane, 85, 86, 91, 99, 126, 129, 

131, 135-137 
Giesecke, 232, 269 
Ginga, 90, 302 
Goi Capopa, 301 
Grenfell, missionary, 6, 13, 19, 23, 

26, 61 
Greshoff, 10, 13, 19, 61 

Halfan, 224 

Hamed bin Mohammet, vide Tibbn 

Haussa, 232 
Horn, missionary, 239, 249, 250, 

253, 254, 261, 264 
Humba, 113, 115, 136, 137, 150, 

196, 223 

Ikalanga, 55 

Ikongo, Bena, 153 

' Ilala,' steamer, 280, 282, 287 

Hindi, 238 

Ilunga Mputt, 50, 154, 302 

Jansen, 3 

Jettchen, terrier, 292 

Jileta, Bena, 153 

Jilunga, 313 

Jingenge, vide Chingenge 


Jiniama, vide Kassongo Jiniama 

Jionga, Bena, 99 

Jirimba, 313 

Jongolata, 44 

Joshomo, 55 

Josso, 302 

Joubert, 259, 260 

Jiikissi, 19 

Juma Merikani, Juma bin Salim, 

vide Famba 
Junker, Dr., 79, 251 

Kaba Eega, 251 

Kabamba, Kawanba, vide Kitenge 

Kabao, 145 

Kabassu Babo, 314 ; the negroes' 

aj^pellation for Von Wissmann 
Kabogo, Cape, 252 
Kaffirs, 107 
Kafungoi, 181 
Kahunda, 269, 270 
Kajembe, 302 
Kajinga, Baqua, 143 
Kakesa, Mona, 162, 180, 185, 189, 

200, 305 
Kalamba, 36, 38, 39, 58, 62, 84, 

86-89, 91, 129, 131-134, 137, 313, 

Kalamba Moana, 69, 87, 91, 94, 99, 

105, 122, 133, 137 
Kalambai, 302 
Kalambarre, 240 
Kalebue, Bena, 183, 195, 198-200. 

Kalonda (Arabs), 241 
Kalosh, 107-109, 111-113, 116-118, 

120, 122, 125-127 
Kalui, 210, 211 
Kalunda, 141, 313 
Kambulu, Baqua, 87 
Kamerondo, 116, 192, 235 
Kangombe, 116 
Kangonde Fall, 97 
Kanjika, Mona, 116, 309 




Kanjoka, Baqua, 105 
Kapiia, Bena, 212 
Kapussu Chimbundu, 70 
Karema, 261 
Karonga, 280-282 
Kasairi, Bena, 306 
Kasairi, Pambu, 106, 109, 111, 

Kash, Baqua, 72 
Kashama, 109, 125, 126 
Kashawalla, interpreter, 115, 158, 

208, 219, 301, 303, 313 
Kashia, Baqiia, 61, 107, 313 
Kashimbi, 303 
Kassanga, 55 
Kassange, 85, 313 
Kassassu, Baqna, 129 
Kassia, 302 
Kassonga Lushia, 222 
Kassongo, Mona, 180 
Kassongo, Tibbn Tibb's residence, 

224, 228, 230, 232, 233, 237, 313 
Kassongo Chiniania, 85, 86, 91, 103, 

115, 126, 129, 190 
Kassongo Liiaba, 105, 127 
Katana, Baqua, 306, 311 
Katanga, 106, 116, 269 
Kataraija, 113 
Katchich, 158, 160 
Katende, 70, 97, 146, 155, 302, 

Kattunga, 291 

Kawala, 247, 248, 252-254, 258 
Kawamba Kitenge, vide Kitenge 
Kiagongo, 170 
Kialo, Mona, 303-305 
Kiepert, 304 
Kifussa, 186 
Kiila, 266 
liikassa, 79 
Kilembue, 217 
Kilimane, vide Quilimane 
Kilunga Messo, 105 
Kilwa, 272, 285, 287 
Kintu a Mushimba, 193 


Kioque, 62, 85, 91, 94, 95, 133, 135, 

137, 312-314 
Kishi Maji, vide Bushi Maji 
Kisuaheli, vide Suaheli 
Kitenge (Kawamba), 217-219, 222, 

227, 235, 301, 302 
Kitimbue, 268 
Kitimkuru, 272 
Kiwu, Lake, 252 
Koango, vide Coango 
Kole, 55 
Konde, 281 
Kongolo Mosh, 89 
Kotto, Bena, 45 
Krupp, Friedrich, 59 
Ku-Mapenge, 303 
Kund, 4, 17, 24-26 
Kussu, Bena, 87 

Laethshu, 51 

Lagongo, 200 

Laniboa, Bashi, vide Bashilamboa 

Landeau, missionary, 259 

Larson, Mr., 247 

Latte, De, 83 

Leal, 297 

Lebue, 28 

Lefini, 11 

Le Marinel, vide Marinel 

Lenz, Dr., 198 

Leopold, Lake, 17 

Leopoldville, 6, 10, 100 

Lindi, 272, 285, 287 

Livingstone, 5 ; grave of his wife, 

Livingstonia, 287 
Loanda, 300 
Loange, 31, 273 
Lobbo, river, 170 
Loka, 5 
Lokassu, 99 
Loko, 5 
Lokodi, 55 





Lomami, 17, 51, 52, 54, 55, 79, IIG, 
157, 162, 1(38, 169, 183, 187, 193, 
206, 208 210, 230, 236, 301, 302 

Lors, Dr., 287 

Lowira (Lowiri), 278 

Lua, 18 

Lualaba, vide Congo 

Luamo, 239 

Lubefu, 178, 186, 204, 304 

Lubi, 45, 48, 50, 103, 107, 148, 149, 
154, 156, 301, 303, 305 

Lubila, vide Bubila 

Lubilanshi (Lubilashi), river, 103 

Lubilash, vide SankiuTU 

Lubilasha, 127 

Lubiranzi, 115, 125 

Li;bowa, Bena, 220 

Liibudi, 129, 140, 305 

LiibiUiu, 58, 64, 80, 87, 91, 94, 96, 
129, 133-135, 144, 301, 302, 305 

Luebo, 7, 10, 36, 40, 56, 59, 82, 
135, 312 

Luebo Station, 7, 37-39, 56, 58, 59, 
63, 64, 73, 83, 86, 136, 137, 145 

Lufubu, 301 

Lufiiku, 259 

Luftiwu, 264 

Luidi, 169 

Lnilu, 115, 121 

Liikalla, 107, 125, 156, 157 

Lukassi (Lukashi, Lnkassia), 194, 
196, 201, 204, 206, 209, 221, 302 

Lukenja, 17, 26, 43, 44, 50 

Liikoba, Bena, 141 

Lukuga, 255, 256 

Lulua, 7, 35, 38, 55-61, 70, 71, 
73-75, 82, 83, 89, 91, 97, 99, 101, 
103, 134, 138, 145, 154, 219, 305 

Lulua, Bena, 306 

Luluaburg, 7, 35-37, 39, 56, 58, 
61-63, 66, 70, 84-88, 94, 127, 129, 
132, 134, 136-138, 145, 301, 305, 

Lulumba Fall, 96, 97 

Lunangua, 264 

Lunda, 85, 86, 104, 106-108, 116 
Luntu, Bena, 308, 310, 312, 414 
Lupungu, Mona, 162, 180, 185, 186, 

188, 189, 191, 192, 200, 201, 301- 

303, 305 
Lucjuengo, 71, 130 
Lurimbi, 193 
Lushiko, 31 
Lussabi Baqua, 139 
Lussanibo, Bena, 50, 148, 154-158 
Lussana, 222 
Lussuna, 200 
Luvo, 77, 80 
Luwulla, Bena, 148 

Macar, De, Captain, 6, 83, 92, 95, 
97, 112, 117, 126, 137, 145, 302 

Madeira, 2, 3, 8, 37 

Makenge, 302 

Malagarassi, 253, 255 

Malange, 85 

Malela, 222 

Manabesi, 2(55 

Mambue, 270 

Mandala, 290, 291, 293, 295 

Manyema, 233, 308 

Mapensa, 267 

Marinel, Le, Lieutenant, 6, 53, 83, 
94, 130, 135, 137, 151, 158, 159, 
171, 173-176, 181, 188, 192, 202, 
205, 207, 213, 214, 218, 225, 226, 
228, 229, 236, 301, 305 

Marungu, 265 

Matadi, 4 

Mbala, Bena, 71 

Mbimbi Mukash, 78 

Mbimbi Mulume, 78 

Mbuju, Baqua, 311 

Meta, Bena, 311 

Mfini Lukenja, 17, 43 

Mikindani, 272, 287 

Milambo, 302, 303 

Mirambo, 221, 225 




Mirambo, Arab from the Nyassa, 

]\Iitamba, 244, 252 
Moadi, 223, 301 
Moauiba Mputt, 312 
Moanga, Bena, 139 
Moansangouuna, 71, 129, 138 
Moero Lake, 235 
Mohammed bin Halfan, 250 
Mohammed bin Kassim, 238 
Moiio, 101 
Moina, 302 
Mona, singular of Bena = Master ; 

Mona Kakesa, vide Kakesa, &c. 
Mona Bena, 170, 172-178, 180 
Mozambique, 300 
Mpala, 259 
Msiri, 269 
Mtoa, 246 
Mu, singular of Ba 
Muata Jamwo, H5, 106, 107, 116 
Mubangi, 20 
Mudinga, vide Badinga 
Muieau, 58, 70, 85, 136 
Muini Muharra, 184 
Mukamba Lake, 141 
Mukanjanga, 94, 312 
Mukasii, 78 
Mukeba, 149 

Mukendi, Baqua, 115, 117, 120 
Mukenge, vide Kalainba 
Mukenge, 128 
Miikete, singular of Bakete 
Mukubu Forest, 152 
Mulenda, Baipia, 128 
Miiller, ' Forstreferendar,' 3 
Mulume, 78 
Mulume. Baqua, 311 
Munieama, 270 
Miiqua, singular of Baqua 
Mushie, 17 
Mussongai, 193 
Mutomba, 154, 157, 158 
Mutope, 289 
Mweua Wanda, 274 


Nasorro bin Zef, 250 

Ndongo, 55 

Ngana Mukanjanga, Mona, 94, 312, 

Ngongo, Bena, 49, 149-155, 160 

Nguo, Bena, 217 

Nimptsch, Von, 10, 13, 61 

Niumkorlo, 265 

Nkolc, 55 

Nsadi, 5 

Nsaire, Nsairi, 5 

Nsali Monene, 5 

Nshale, Nshale-Mele, 5 

Nunsua, 265 

Nyangwe, 46, 79, 184, 192, 198, 200, 

202, 218, 221-224, 228, 233, 237, 

293, 301, 315 
Nyassa, 250, 251, 264, 265, 272, 273, 

279-285, 287, 288 

Oswald, 300 
Oto, 54 

Pallaballa, 4 

Pamolondo, 288 

Panga, Bashi, 306 

' Paul Pogge,' iron boat, 70, 74, 80 

' Peace,' steamer, 6, 10-12, 19, 33, 

56, 59, 61 
Peshi, Baqua, 193, 303 
Peters, Dr., 300 
Piari, Kai, 169 
Pogge, Dr., 45, 46, 49, 50, 54, 64, 

70, 94, 97, 101, 107, 116, 135, 

138, 148, 149, 153, 160, 169 181, 

198, 229, 301, 302, 313 
Pogge, Mount, 21, 24, 26 
Pogge Fall, 78-80 
Putt, Baqua, 146, 149 

Qua, 5, 12 
Quamouth, 6, 11, 12 
Quango, 19, 20, 25, 32 




Quaqua, 298 
Quilimane, 2'Jl. 298, 299 
Quilu, 26 
Quitiinclii, 163 

Eashid, 240 

Eeichardt, 240, 268 

Eiamba, Bena, 101, 139, 306, 312 

Eiqua, Lake, 270, 271 

Eostock, 299 

Eugu Eugu, 268 

Euhega, 257 

Euqua Lake, 270 

Sahorro, 223, 226 

Said, 194, 196-203, 210, 221, 222, 

Said Bargash, 224, 250, 268 

Said bin Habibu, 239 

Saise, 270 

Sala, Bena, 206 

Sala-Mbi (Quango), 19 

Sali Lebiie, 28 

Sali Teniboa, 31 

Samba, Bena, 223 

Sangula Meta, 39, 64, 69, 87, 137, 

Sankurru, Von Wissmann's man- 
servant, 113, 225 

Sankurru-Lubilash, 4, 5, 17, 34, 
36, 37, 39-41, 45, 46, 52, 55, 78, 
86, 103, 112, 115, 127, 141, 148, 
153-156, 158 160, 162, 163, 168, 
183, 185, 186, 190, 193, 211, 230, 
303, 304 

Satnrnino, 58, 65, 71, 83, 127 

Schneider, gunsmith, 3, 34, 39, 52, 
54, 59, 61 

Schweinfurth, 79 

Schwerin, Von, Professor, 83 

Sekelai, Baqua, 143 

Shankolle, 5 

Shari, 5 

Shire, 251, 288, 291, 295-298 
Sicke, 251 

Simao, 113, 136, 137, 150, 151, 169 
Sonimers, Dr., 136, 302 
Soudan, 185 

Stanley, 17, 146, 241, 252, 256 
' Stanley,' steamer, 35, 38, 58, 82-85 
Stanley Falls, 78, 202, 220, 221, 223, 

231, 235, 236, 244, 250 
Stanley Pool, 4, 6, 7, 21, 35, 37, 38, 

52, 61, 78, 100 
Stehlmann, 83 
Stej)henson's Eoad, 279 
Storms, Captain, 260 
Suaheli, 46, 200, 225 

Tabora, 184, 218, 232, 238, 246, 250, 

Tambai, 193 

Tanga, 272 

Tanganyika, 61, 107, 230, 232, 235, 
236, 239-242, 247, 250-253, 255- 
258, 261, 266-268, 271, 272, 279- 
283, 285, 308 

Tappenbeck, 4, 6, 17, 24, 25 

Taylor, Bishop, 136 

Temba, 43 

Tembo, Baqua, 112 

Temboa, 31 

Tenda, 105, 106, 111, 122, 126, 127 

Tibbu Tibb (Hamed bin Mo- 
hammed), 46, 162, 180, 183, 184, 
187, 190, 194-198, 200, 205, 209, 
210, 217-220, 224 228, 230-233, 
235, 251, 252, 269, 270 

Togo Country, 36 

Tshingenge, vide Cliingenge 

Tubindi (Tubintsh), 104 

Tupende, 80, 135, 313 

Tushilange, 306 

Ubujive, 240, 241, 247, 308 
Uemba, 272 



Uganda, 2^8 
Ugogo, 121 
Ujiji, 184, 236, 239, 246, 247, 249, 

250, 252, 256 
Uniamwesi, 221, 308 
Unianjembe, 269 
Unioro, 251 

VivY, 4 

Wabuma, 14, 16 
Wagenie, 223 
Wajiji, 256 258, 268 
Wakonde, 275, 278, 279, 281 
Wakussu, 222 
Walker, 83 
Wanfumu, 12, 14 
Wanyamwesi, 46, 268 
Wapambue, Bena, 159 
Wasi Malnngu, Bena, 241 
Wasongora, 159, 222 
Wasongora Mino, 251 
Wassonga, 159 
Wawemba, 271-275, 285 


Wawiwa, 275 

Wayanzi, 12 

Winton, Sir Francis de, 3 

Wissmann Fall, 80, 82 

Wissmann Pool, 20, 22 

Witanda, Bena, 102 

Wolf, Dr., Staff Physician, 3, 6, 22, 
34-59, 61, 62, 65, 70, 71, 73, 74, 
79, 80, 82-84, 100, 101, 129, 130, 
146, 148, 150, 153, 154, 157, 304 

Yehka, Bena, 53, 54 

Zambesi, 251, 273, 282, 290, 296, 

Zanzibar, Zanzibaris, 74, 76, 81, 

136, 186, 187, 197, 198, 218, 226, 

232, 235, 300 
Zappu Mutapo, 303 
Zappu Zapp, 46-48, 102, 167, 185, 

186, 303, 304 
Zappix Zapp (Bena Mona), 172 
Zefu, 221, 224-227, 230, 235-239 
Zulu, 281 

rillNTKD BY 



1 171^ Q013M 51H5